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Clazs No. 










I OTN l> KD I',V 








Published by the Conchological Section 















Published by the Conchological Section, 








This part contains a classification of the Bulimoid snails described 
in volumes x, xi, xii, xiii and xiv, with an Index to genera and 
species. It may either be bound with vol. xiv, or as a separate index 

All references herein to figures of the anatomy of Bulimi, refer to 
the plates of vol. xiv. 



Owing in part to the absence of anatomical data, in part to the 
want of sufficient knowledge to interpret the facts in our possession, a 
number of groups belonging to the Helicidce were formerly referred 
to the BulimulidcR or "Bulimida" by reason of the lengthened and 
Bulimoid contour of their shells. Investigations made during the 
progress of the monographs on Rulimi have shown the true relation- 
ships of several of these genera. 

Family ZONITID^E. 
Genus CALYCIA H. AD. xiv, p. 20. 

The following genera are to be added to the Helicida enumerated 
in vol. ix of this series. 

Family HELICIDCE (sensu Pits.} 
Subfamily CAM/ENIN^: (Epiphallogona}. 

Genus AMPHIDROMUS Albers, 1850. 

Man. Conch, xiii, p. 127; xiv, pp. 167, 282. A Bulimoid group 
of arboreal snails, extending from Indo-China to Timor. 

Section Syndromus Pils., vol. xiii, p. 184. Same geographic 

Subgenus BEDDOMEA Nevill, xiv, p. 1. Southern India and 

Subgenus PSEUDOPARTULA Pfr., xiv, p. 9. Java, Sumatra and 

Genus DRAPARNAUDIA Montr. 1859. 
Man. Conch, xiv, p. 12. New Caledonia and New Hebrides. 

. Subfamily HELICINA: (Belogona). 
(Bdogona Euadeuia.} 

Genus EULOTA Hartm. (Vol. ix, p. 200). 
Subgenus DOLICHEULOTA Pils., vol. xiv, p. 18. Formosa. 
( Belogona Siphonadenia. ) 


Genus CYLINDRUS Fitz. 

Family ACAVID^E Pilsbry. 
Macroogona Pils., Man. Conch, ix. Additional species are de- 
scribed in xiii, pp. 122-126. 


This group differs from the Bulirmdida by the long kidney, ab- 
sence of a tubular ureter, copious venation of the cardiac side of the 
lung; the solid, smooth jaw, etc., etc. Suitable description and 
illustration of the soft anatomy of the group would occupy undue 
space in the Manual, and will be given elsewhere ; but as Gonyosto- 
mus has been associated hitherto with Bulimulince, it has been 
thought best to include some account of its anatomy here, in order 
to fix the position of the group. 

Two genera of this subfamily are known, Strophocheilus and 



Man. Conch, x, p. 1. The genus as constituted in vol. x requires 
some restriction, the group Thaumastus proving by its soft anatomy 
to belong to the family Bulimulidce. 

Submenus STROPHOCHEILUS s. str. 

S. pudicus Mull., xiv, p. 116. 

almeida Spix. 
S. planidens Mich., x, 7. 
S. rhodocheilus Rve., x, 8. 
S. pilsbryi v. Iher., xiv, 118. 
S. milleri Sowb., x, 8. 

v. kronei Iher., xiv, 118. 

v. iguapensis Pils., xiv, 119. 

S. calus Pils., xiv, 119. 

S. unidentatus Sowb., x, 9. 

S. erythrosoma Pils., x, 10 ; xiv. 


pudicus Pfr. 
S. (?) contortuplicatus Rve., x, 71. 

Subgenus BORUS Alb., 1850. 

Man. Conch, x. pp. 10, 194; xiv, p. 120. 
and temperate South America. 
S. popelairianus Nyst, x, 13. 

v. thammianus Mart., x, 14. 

v. dohrnianus Mart., x, 14. 

v. connectens Mart., x, 14. 

Distribution, tropical 

S. maximus Sowb., x, 15. 

v. kremnoicus Orb., x, 16. 
S. huascari Tschudi, x, 16. 


S. santacruzii Orb., x, 16. 

santacruzensis Pfr, 

sanctce cruets Beck. 
S. lacunosus Orb., x, 17. 
S. mathiusii Orb., x. 17. 

matthewsii Beck. 

leucostoma Sowb. 

mahogani Sowb. 
S. durfeldti Dohrn, x, 18. 
S. hupeanus Morel., x, 19. 

castelnaui Hupe. 
S. cacopatensis Pfr., x, 20. 
S. granulosus Rang, x, 20. 
S. yporanganus I her. &,xiv, 

S. valenciennesi Pfr., x, 21. 

fulguratus Val. 
S. cantagallanus Rang, x, 22. 

accelerans Mart. 

proximus Sowb. 

terrestris Spix. 

corruyatus Wagn. 

v. intercedens Mart., x, 22. 
S. gummatus Hid., x. 23. 
S. ovatus Miill., x, 24. 

hcemastonius Spix. 

ovum Ads. 

Helix ovulis Ma we. 

Lymncea imperialis Lea. 

v. chionostomus Morch, x, 25. 
S. grandis Mart., x, 26; xiv, 122. 
S. iheringi Cless., x, 196; xiv, 122. 

proclivis Mart., x, 195. 
S. auritus Sowb., x, 26; xiv, 121. 
S. oosomus Pils., x, 27. 
S. fragilior Iher., xiv, 121. 
S. bronni Pfr., x, 28. 

browni H. & A. Ads. 

v. pergranulatus Pils., xiv, 120. 

S. paranaguensis Pils. & Iher., 

xiv, 124. 
S. oblongus Miill., x, 29; xiv, 


Turbo hcemastomus Gmel. 
Helix ovipara Portl. Catal. 
B. roseus Montf. 
Helix semilineata Mke. 
Melania carnatis Perry, 
v. crassus Alb., x, 30. 
v. albolabiatus Smith, x, 197. 
tobagoensis Pils., x, 30. 
albus W. G. B., xiv, 123. 
v. alba Smith, x, 197. 
S. sanctipauli Iher. & Pils., xiv, 


sanctdepauli olim. 
S. capillaceus Pfr., x, 31. 
v. seneri Jouss., x, 31. 
v. intertextus Pils., x, 32; xiv, 


S. lorenzianus Doer., xiv, 125. 
S. lichtensteini Alb., x, 32. 
S. rosaceus King, x, 33. 
S. crenulatus Pfr., x, 33. 
Bulinus chilensis Sowb. 
B. credulatus Nev., xiv, 126. 
B. squamulatus C. & J. (?) 
S. crenellus Phil., x, 34. 
S. pachychilus Pfr., x, 35. 
S. bridgesi Pfr., x, 35. 
S. lutescens King, x, 36. 
nucleus Sowb. 
v. australis Mart., x, 36. 

dorbignyi Doer., xiv, 126. 
v. cordillerse Doer., xiv, 125. 
S. globosus Mart., x, 37; xiv, 


Subgenus DRYPTUS Alb., 1860. 

Man. Conch, x, p. 37. Distribution, Venezuela and Colombia. 
The systematic position of this group cannot be regarded as fully 
S. moritzianus Pfr., x, 38. S. marmoratus Dkr., x, 40. 

v. wilsoni Pils., x, 39. S. venezuelensis Nyst, x, 41. 

S. indentatus DaC., xiv, 281. S. stubeli Mart., x, 42. 
S. guerini Pfr., x, 39. S. funcki Nyst, x, 42. 

S. pardalis Fer., x, 39. superbus Jonas. 

leptochilus Pfr. adoptus Rve. 

astropoides Jonas. 

Genus GONYOSTOMUS Beck, 1837. 

Man. Conch, x, pp. 96, 121. 

Shell rimate-umbilicate, fusiform or ovate-conic, rather thin, com- 
posed of 5 to 5^ gently convex whorls. Surface finely granose in 
spiral series. Aperture elliptic or ovate, angular above, rounded or 
angular below ; the peristome evenly, narrowly expanded or reflexed. 
Outer lip regularly arcuate, without callous projections within. 
Columellar lip free, inserted high, the columella with a weak, 
deeply placed fold. 

The foot (pi. 53, fig. 35, G. multicolor) is coarsely reticulated, the 
tubercles being large and polygonal at the sides much smaller on the 
dorsal surface of body and tail, three black stripes run parallel on 
the back, parted by two slightly wider reddish bands which terminate 
at the tentacles. The sole shows no trace of longitudinal division. 

Kidney much longer than the pericardium, projecting backward. 
Ureter and secondary ureter open throughout, but represented by a 
distinctly differentiated band. Reticulation of the lung almost 
evenly spreading over both intestinal and cardiao sides, the vena cava 
and pericardial vein each supplied with several large branches (pi. 
49, fig. 8, G. multicolor, x 2). 

Free retractor system as in Bulimulidse, the pharyngeal retractor 
being shortly connected with the left tentacular band, and the colu- 
mellar muscle or tail retractor with the right band (pi. 54, fig. 37, 
G. turnix, x 2). 

Genitalia (PI. 51, fig. 16, G. turnix, x 2 ; pi. 52, fig. 26, 
G. multicolor, x 2 ; fig. 27, vagina of same), much as in Stroph- 
ocheilus. The penis is long, cylindrical and fleshy, bearing the 


vas deferens and retractor at its summit. The vagina is long, and 
continued in a sort of pouch above the entrance of the spermatheca 
duct (pi. 52, fig. 27). The latter is slender and nearly as long as 
the oviduct. The ovisperm duct is imbedded in the concave side of 
the albumen gland nearly to the distal end of the latter. 

The intestinal tract is of the usual four-folded type. The jaw is 
strong, arcuate, solid and smooth, with a slight median projection 
(pi. 57, fig. 59, G. turm'x), or highly arched with a strong projec- 
tion (pi. 57, fig. 67, G. multicolor). The radula has the formula 
39.1.39 in G. tvrnix (pi. 57, fig. 68). The central and lateral teeth 
bearing single, broadly rounded cusps. The change to marginal 
teeth begins about at the 15th tooth, a division of the cusp into 
mesocone and ectocone gradually ensuing. A few extreme marginals 
are irregular in shape, as usual. In G. multicolor (pi. 57, figs. 65, 
66) the formula is about the same, but the cusps are longer and less 
broadly rounded. 

Type G. goniostoma. Distribution, southern Brazil. 

This genus was formerly considered a subgenus of Bulimulida 
subordinate to Auris. The examination of alcoholic specimens of 
two species, received from Dr. H. von Ihering, shows that it has no 
affinity to Auris or other Bulimuline genera, but is a member of the 
Strophochilince, closely related to Strophockeilus, from which it 
differs chiefly in the form of the shell. The form of the kidney, 
absence of any tubular ureter, the pattern of the lung, the solid jaw, 
unicuspid, median teeth of the radula, in fact the whole anatomy, is 
Strophocheiline, and widely different from the Bulimuloid genera. 

My former treatment of this group is an instructive commentary 
on the inconclusive nature of purely shell characters. Before I had 
dissected Gonyostomus I thought it a member of the Bulimulidae, 
while Thaumastus I took to be a subgenus of Strophocheilus ; whereas 
the anatomy conclusively shows that Gonyostomus belongs to the 
Strophochilinee, and Thaumastus is a typical member of the Bull- 
mulinse. And in dealing with both genera I had before me speci- 
mens of the shells of nearly every species for study. 

The genitalia of Gonyostomus present some interesting features. 
The vas deferens in G. turnix adheres to the vagina, upon which it 
pursues a sinuous course (pi. 51, f. 16). The vagina is plicate 
within (pi. 52, fig. 27, G. multicolor, v, vagina ; sp, lower end of the 
spermatheca duct ; o, lower end of the oviduct ; s, accessory sac). 


It continues upward beyond the entrance of the spermatheca, ter- 
minating in a short blind sac. This sac is homologous with the 
accessory sac at the base of the spermatheca in Strophocheilus, and 
perhaps with the appendiculum of Panda and Pedinogyra. The 
lower portion of the ovi sperm duct is imbedded in the albumen 
gland as in Ampelita. There is no sheath about the base of the 
penis in G. turnix. The lumen of the penis is large, longitudinally 
plicate, the folds crenulatc. No papilla. 

In G. multicolor the lung is black-pigmented except posteriorly. 
The spermatheca lies near the inner end of the pericardium. 
-G. goniostoma Fer., x, 122. G. turnix Gld., xvi, 133. 

G. erubescens Swains. G. multicolor Rang, x, 123. 

G. hybrida Gld., x, 123. G. miersii Sowb., x, 124. 

J3. egregius Pfr. 


Shell usually oblong or ovate, rarely columnar, helicoid or partially 
degenerate and Succinea-like. Kidney triangular, as short as the 
pericardium, with a reflexed ureter, and closed or rarely open 
secondary or gut ureter. Lung having a long unbranched pulmonary 
vein, the first branch of the pericardial vein sometimes well-devel- 
oped, a branch of the vena cava lying between them ; the reticulation 
chiefly confined to the region near the pneumostome between the last- 
named branch and the rectum, and the tract between the pulmonary 
vein and the last fold of the gut. Jaw made up of vertical or converg- 
ing plates concrescent except at their outer and usually imbricating 
margins (rarely completely united, and smooth). Radula of the 
ordinary Helicid type or variously specialized. Intestine of the 
usual four- folded type. In the free retractor muscle system the 
right ocular band arises from the face of the columellar muscle and 
the left ocular band is united for a greater or less distance with the 
pharyngeal retractor muscle. 

While related to the Helicidce, snails of this family are well char- 
acterized by the triangular kidney, not exceeding the pericardium in 
length. The jaw, lung and shell are also to a less extent character- 
istic. The Acavidde and especially the Strophochilinie are likewise 
allied to Bulimulida, but in these groups the kidney is oblong, pro- 
longed backward, the ureter is imperfect or wanting, the jaw solid, 
tfhe pattern of lung venation diverse, and the nepionic shell larger. 

Those Helicida having a Bulimoid shell, such as Amphidromus* 


Draparnaudia, Helicostyla, etc., differ from all Bulimulidce in im- 
portant features of the pallial organs, genitalia, etc. The same is 
true of the Partulidce and Bidiminidce, groups closely imitating Buli- 
mulidce in the form of the shell. 

All the subfamilies and a large majority of the genera are South 
American. Two genera, Bulimulus and Drymaus, belonging to the 
most primitive subfamily of the group, Bulimulince, extend into the 
West Indies and North America; and two others, Bothriembryon 
and Placostylus, occur in Australasia, giving testimony to the former 
existence of an Antartic land connecting the austral continents of 
the two hemispheres. The other subfamilies are more specialized, 
and confined to middle and South America. All Odontostomina 
are South American. The Orthalicincz inhabit tropical South 
America, with two genera, Oxystyla and Liguus, in the Antilles, 
Mexico and Southern Florida. The subfamily Amphibuli mince has 
the same distribution, two genera being Antillean and Mexican, two 
South American. 

The past history of the Bulimulidse is still most obscure. The 
numerous modifications of the group, and its omnipresence in South 
America lead us to believe it an old group there, and probably it 
arose in that region. Its advent in continental North America has 
obviously been a recent incursion from the South, and the Austra- 
lasian groups also are emigrants from South America. But while 
its chief characteristics must have been well established in Cretaceous 
or Jurassic times, there is yet no trace of Bulimulidse in Africa. 
This is somewhat remarkable because a former land connection with 
Africa through the mid-Atlantic, as claimed by Kokcn and others, is 
emphatically proclaimed by the Streptaxidde, Ac/tatinidse (Neobelis- 
cus, etc.), AmpuHariidx, freshwater fishes, etc., of South America. 
This is altogether independent of the problematic connection of 
South Africa and Antarctica, claimed by certain naturalists, and 
supported to some extent by the dominence of Endodontidde of 
Austral types in the Cape region and St. Helena. 

Classification of Bulimididae. 

The family may be divided into four subfamilies, as follows: 
I. BULIMULIN.K. Shell usually perforate or umbilicate, usually 
ovate, rarely cylindrical or Helicoid; generally rather small, 
the aperture toothless. Jaw with vertical or converging 
plaits. Teeth of the normal Hclicid type or variously 
modified. Genitalia without accessory organs. 


II. ODONTOSTOMIN^E. Shell varying from fusiform to Helicoid. 
Aperture usually obstructed by internal lamellae, folds or 
teeth. Jaw plaited or solid. Dentition Helicid. Genitalia 

III. ORTHALICIN^E. Shell ovate-conic or oblong, imperforate, with 

solid axis, usually rather large and strikingly colored, the 
aperture toothless, sometimes with a columellar fold. Jaw 
strong, with rather few, wide plaits. Teeth in V shaped 
rows, bearing single broad, gouge-shaped cusps, the median 
teeth sometimes lance-shaped. Penis provided with an 
accessory gland or appendix. 

IV. AMPHIBULIMIN^E. Shell more or less degenerate, globose, 

oblong, /SweezWa-shaped or Haliotis shaped, always thin and 

mainly cuticular. Jaw very delicate and highly arched, 

composed of many close, converging plaits. Radula variously 

specialized, the cusps large. Genitalia simple. 

With the exception of the last subfamily, these groups seem to be 

natural. The main lines of generic affinity, and approximate phy- 

logeny, may then be represented by the accompanying diagram. The 

relationships of the genera of Orthalicince to one another have been 

considered elsewhere (vol. xii, p. 100), those of the genera of Odon- 

tostominde in this volume. 





Amphibuli m;i "^ 

limulid j Bothriembryon. 

1 , , "Pl'ripoqfvlii 

C 3 

;ii q 

' >*~cu 

'ON f 




Bulimulus, div. I ^ 
Thaumastufcf ^ 
Plekocheilus 3 








Artificial key to genera of Bulimulidse, by shell characters. 
The Amphibulimse (see above) are not included in this key. 

Shell Helicoid or troehiform, capable of standing more or less upright 

upon the base, 
a. Aperture conspicuously contracted by teeth or folds. 

b. Aperture turning upward ; shell biconvex, mottled. 

Anostoma, xiv, 109. 
b l . Aperture oblique, shell transversely oval or troehiform. 

TomigeruSi xiv, 105. 
a 1 . Aperture toothless. 

b. Apical whorls most minutely, evenly grated (as in pi. 15, f. 
31); not umbilicate. 

c. Last whorl distorted ; basal lip advanced. 

Zaplagius, xi, 185. 

c 1 . Last whorl normal; shell troehiform. Oxychona, xi, 181. 
b 1 . Apical whorls not so sculptured ; shell earthy, dull and 
opaque, openly umbilicate. 

c. Aperture angular, oblique, the lip simple, discontinu- 
ous. Platybostryx, x, 129. 
c 1 . Aperture subhorizontal, the lip flaring, continuous. 

Xenothauma, xiv, 134. 

Shell ovate, oblong or pillar -shaped, " Bulimoid" 
a. Apical whorls smooth. 

b. Lip reflexed, often conspicuously thickened ; shell usually 
solid and rather large. 

c. Aperture angular below, or with sinuous lip ; or the 

lip bears a callous flange. Auris, x, 95. 

c 1 . Aperture broadly rounded below, Plekocheilus, x, 62. 

Porphyrobaphe, xii, 149. 

b 1 . Lip roflexed ; aperture oblong with parallel margins ; size 

small. Anctus, xiv, 36. 

b*. Lip acute, not at all expanded ; shell rather large, wholly 

imperforate, the columellar lip completely adnate ; often 

conspicuously colored. Oxystyla, xii, 101. Liguus, xii, 160. 

6 3 . Lip acute and simple or expanded ; shells of moderate or 

small size, usually perforate or rimate. BuKmuhu, division 

I, x, 127. Neopetr&us, in part,xi, 1G3. Leiostracus, xii, 90. 


a 1 . Apical whorls most minutely, evenly cancellate, as in pi. 15, fig. 

31, neither spiral nor vertical sculpture predominating; or in 

other words, with minute pits in spiral and straight vertical series. 

b. Shell strong, the peristome thick, with strong callous flanges 

within lip and columella ; spire short. Otostomus, x, 107. 

ft 1 . Shell elongate, the aperture having teeth, or angular below. 

Odontostomus, xiv, 38. 
ft 2 . Aperture without teeth or folds ; shell rather thin. 

c. Base obliquely truncate. Zaplagius, xi, 185. 

c l . Base tapering, rarely angular ; lip varying from unex- 
panded to reflexed. -Drym8eus t xi, 191. 

a 2 . Apical whorls with straight vertical riblets. 
b. Aperture provided with teeth or folds. 

OdontostomuSi in part, xiv, p. 38. 
b 1 . Aperture ovate, without teeth. 

c. Intervals between the apical riblets conspicuously 

striate spirally. Neopetraeus, xi, 163. 

c 1 . Intervals smooth or weakly striate spirally. Bulimulus, 

division III, xi, 83; and Bothriembryon, in part, 

xiii, p. 1. 

a 3 . Apical whorls sculptured with waved, irregular or dislocated 
wrinkles, sometimes forming a net or mesh pattern, or pitted in 
the pattern of a thimble. 

b. Aperture with several pliciform teeth or folds. 

Odontostomus, in part, xiv, p. 93. 

ft 1 . Aperture with obtuse teeth, or a callus on the parietal wall 
defining a posterior groove ; whorls 4J to 5J. 

Hyperaulax, xiv, p. 102. 

6 2 . Aperture ovate, without teeth or posterior groove. 
c: American genera. 

d. Wholly imperforate, large, elaborately variegated, 
apex'conspicuously thimble-pitted. 

OrthalicuS) xii, 186. 

d l . Usually rimate or umbilicate ; rather large, brown 
or marked with brown. 

e. Shell dappled or zigzag-streaked. 

Plekocheilus, x, 62. 
e l . Shell streaked, banded or unicolored. 

Thaumastus, x, 43. 


d*. Perforate, rimate or umbilicate, smaller ; plain, 
streaked or banded. 

BuKmnhu 9 division 11^ xi, p. 1. 
c 1 . Australasian genera. 

d. Auriculoid, the lip thickened, expanded or re- 
flexed. Placostylus, xiii, 19. 
d l . Bulimulus-like, the lip simple. 

Bothriembryon, xiii, 1. 
a 4 . Apical whorls spirally striate ; aperture toothed. 

Macrodontes, xiv, 29. 

Subfamily I. BULIMULINA:. 

The numerous genera of this subfamily may be classified pro- 
visionally thus : 

1. Radula with teeth of the normal or unspecialized Helicid type. 

(American genera.) 
a. Shell rather large, ovate or oblong. 

b. Lip conspicuously calloused or with a callous flange, or 
having the aperture distorted. Auris. 

b. 1 Aperture ovate, the lip without calluses. 

c. Ovate, the shell dappled, maculate or zigzag striped, 


c 1 . Oblong, streaked or with a few wide bands; nepionic 

shell rather large and sculptured. Thaumastus. 

a 1 . Shell much depressed, with crater-like umbilicus, subhorizontal 

aperture and continuous flaring peristome. Xenothauma. 

a 2 . Shell ovate, pillar-shaped or Helicoid, plain, banded or streaked, 

the aperture with simple or expanded peristome. Bulintulus. 

(Australasian genera.) 

a. Shell rather thin, Bulimulus-like, the peristome simple. Duct of 

the spermatheca long. Bothriembryon. 

a. Shell auriculoid, the peristome reflexed or expanded, generally 

much thickened and bright colored. Duct of the spermatheca 

short. Placostylus. 

2. Radula with variously specialized teeth, unlike the ordinary 
Helicid type. Jaw very thin and Jlexible. (All American.) 

a. Shell ovate or oblong, usually with a peculiar color-pattern of 
oblique streaks ; the apical whorls sculptured with vertical riblets 
and finer, lower, spiral striae, sometimes smooth. Rows of teeth 


only moderately curved, the teeth of the median portion of the 
radula having single, exceedingly long, oblique, blunt or emar- 
giriate cusps. Neopetr&us. 

a 1 . Apical whorls of the shell sculptured with an exceedingly fine, 
even grating, formed by minute pits regularly arranged in spiral 
and vertical series (as in pi. 15, fig. 31). 

b. Periphery of shell angular, or base obliquely truncate or 

flattened ; teeth of the median portion of radula having 

enormously expanded, rounded cusps (entocone and meso- 

cone), and minute, spur-like, basal ectocones; the transverse 

rows V-shaped, running obliquely backward from the middle. 

c. Shell trochiform, smooth, regular. Plaits of the jaw 

vertical and parallel. No entocone appearing on the 

teeth. Oxychona. 

c 1 . Shell with conic spire, the last whorl running upward, 

or obliquely truncate below. Jaw high-arched, with 

narrow converging plaits. Entocone conspicuous on 

the outer lateral and marginal teeth. Zaplagius. 

b l . Shell ovate or oblong. Teeth of the radula excessively 

numerous, with indistinct basal-plates, arranged in variously 

curved rows, but running obliquely forward on each side of 

the rhachis; all the lateral teeth of a peculiar tricuspid form. 


a 2 . Apex of shell nearly smooth, but usually showing some low ir- 
regular longitudinal wrinkles, and faint, fine, spiral striae. Radula 
with comparatively few teeth in a transverse row, the rows run- 
ning a little backward from the rhachis. Lateral teeth having a 
broad, rounded main cusp and a well-developed ectocone, the 
marginal teeth much as in Drymceus. Leiostracus. 

Genus AURIS Spix. 
Manual x, p. 95. Type A. melastoma. Pachyotus of many authors. 

Large, usually pale-colored BulimulidcB, with the apex smooth, 
the peristome reflexed and generally bearing a flange or callosity 
upon the outer lip. 

The genital system, jaw and teeth, present no well-marked or 
diagnostic characters differentiating this group from Plekocheilus or 
Bulimulus. It rests upon conchologic peculiarities. 


Subgenus AURIS s. str. 

The anatomy of A. bilabiata and A. egregia has been examined 
by Semper. There is a rather broad and long mantle-lobe extending 
along the whole left mantle-edge. The kidney is short, hardly longer 
than the pericardium ; secondary ureter closed. The venation of the 
lung is confined to the neighborhood of the pneumostome. 

The genital system (pi. 50, fig. 13, A. egregia, after Semper) is 
simple, the penis with terminal retractor and no papilla. At its 
base there is a circular muscle, embracing also the vas deferens, 
as in many Bulimulus. The small spermatheca is borne upon a 
long duct. 

The jaw of bilabiata is composed of 13 unequal, broad, flat ribs, 
hardly projecting below. In egregia there is a very wide, smooth- 
edged median plait, with two broad ribs on each side, not produced 
on the cutting edge. 

The radula has 61-63 teeth in bilabiata, 65-67 in egregia, the 
transverse rows being slightly angular in the middle. The middle 
tooth is tricuspid, median cusp wide ; the laterals have a small 
ectocone and obtuse mesocone. 

The jaw in this group is in a transition state from the plaited to 
the smooth type. The genitalia and teeth offer no differences of im- 
portance from those of Eudolichotis. 

A. bilabiata B. & S., x, 99. A. icterostoma Mart., xiv, 132. 

Helix maximiliana Fer. A. chrysostoma Mor., x, 103. 

var. melanostoma Mor., x, var. swainsoni Pfr., x, 104. 

101. A. bernardii Pfr., x, 105. 

A. egregia Jay, x, 101. A. illheocola Mor., x, 106. 

var. nigrilabris Pils., x, 102. 
A. melastoma Sw., x, 102. 

B. melanostomus Dh. 

B. strutJiiolaris Mke. 
var. bracliyplax Pils., x, 103. 

Subgenus (?) OTOSTOMUS Beck, 1837. 
Manual, x, p. 107. 

The apex in this group is exactly like that of Drymseus and of the 
sections of Odontostomus grouping around the typical subgenus. 
Whether the group belongs to Auris, or is a distinct genus near the 


Zaplagius group of Drymaeus, will depend upon the soft anatomy ; 
but I think likely that an examination of the jaw and teeth will show 
the latter location to be near the truth. 

A. signata Spix, x, 107. Province of Bahia, Brazil. 

Auris vittata Spix. 

Subgenus EUDOLICHOTIS Pilsbry, 1896. 
Man. Conch., x, pp. 98, 108. Type A. distorta. 

The mantle of A. distorta has a very small anterior and two 
larger, widely separated left lobes. The kidney is even shorter than 
the pericardium. The genital system (pi. 50, fig. 7, after Semper) 
is simple, the long penis prolonged beyond the insertion of the vas 
deferens, with terminal retractor ; duct of the spermatheca long. 

The jaw of A. distorta has 35 plaits, the edges of which are hardly 
free; 5 or 6 median plaits converge and are coalescent, only the 
outer reaching the lower margin (Semper). That of A. aurissciuri 
(pi. 50, fig. 11, after Pace) is similar but with less converging and 
with fewer plaits. It is like tho jaw of Bulimulus. The radula of 
A. distorta has 100-108 teeth in the slightly V-shaped rows. The 
median tooth has a long lanceolate cusp ; first lateral tooth is similar 
with a small ectocone, the rest having more rounded cusps and larger 
ectocones (pi. 50, fig. 14, a central with 1st, 2d, 17th and 25th teeth, 
after Semper). 

A. distorta Brug., x, 109. A. glabra Gmel. 

var. sublaevis Pil?., x, 111. Pelek. undulatus Bk. 

var. gracilis Pils., x, 111. Bui. aegotis Mke. 

var. guairensis Jouss., x, 111. var. grenadensis Gp., x, 114. 

var. bisuturalis Pils., x, 112. A. lacerta Pfr., x, 115. 

A. aurissciuri Gp., x, 112. A. sinuata Alb., x, 1 16. 

B. aegotis Pfr. A. euryomphala Jon., x, 116. 
A. glabra Gm., x, 113. B. otostomus Pfr. 

Valuta auris Judae Meusch., A. perdix Pfr., x, 118. 

xiv, 133. A. dillwyniana Pfr., x, 118. 

H. auris-caprinus Fer. A. midas Alb., x, 119. 

P. caprinus Bk. var. spectrum Alb., x, 119. 

Pupa auris sileni Gray. A. hauxwelli Crosse, x, 120. 

Auricula sileni Lam. 


Genus PLEKOCHEILUS Guilding, 182H. 
Man. Conch, x, p. 6*2. 

Shell ovate, usually solid and opaque and zigzag-strenkc<l or dap- 
pled with brown. Aperture large, ovate, the peristome expanded, 
refiexed or blunt, columella bearing a fold, or simple. 

There are two small, well-separated frontal lobes on the left side 
of the mantle. Kidney (of P. blainvilleanus} very short, triangular, 
not projecting beyond the pericardium. 

Genitalia (P. blainvilleanus, pi. 50, fig. 3, after Semper) : Atrium 
very short ; penis moderately long, continued in a long epiphallus 
which terminates in the vas deferens and a long flagellum; " retractor 
muscle inserted about the middle." Vagina short and wide. Sperma- 
theca globular, on a very long duct, as long as the oviduct. (The 
penis is shown exserted in the figure). Jaw arcuate, composed of 
numerous delicate plaits, 41 in P. blainvilleanus (pi. 50, fig. 4. after 
Schako), about 60 in P. aulacoslylus. 

Radula broad, the rows of teeth widely V shaped (pi. 50, fig. 12, 
P. blainvilleanus*), composed of 62,1,62 x 110 teeth (blainvilleanus, pi. 
50, figs. 5, 6). In this species the basal-plates are longer than the 
cusps ; central tooth with a stout middle cusp, side cusps small ; lat- 
erals similar but with no inner cusp ; marginals irregularly denticu- 
late. In P. aurissileni and P. aulacostylus (pi. 50, figs. 9, 10, after 
Binney) the mesocones are long and acute, reaching beyond the 
basal-plate; in the former the side-cusps are sub-obsolete, in the latter 
well developed. 

Type, P. aurissileni (Born). 

Distribution : Northwestern South America, St. Vincent aiid St. 

My knowledge of the soft anatomy of this genus is from the work 
of Semper, Binney and Schako. It agrees in all respects with Bidi- 
mulus except that Semper states that there is a flagellum on the 
penis. This seems to me very doubtful. The structure he figures 
may rather be the retractor muscle of the penis. The rank of Pleko- 
cheilus as a genus rests upon its conchological peculiarities. 

Section Plekocheilus s. str. 

Man. Conch., x, p. 64. 

Shell wrinkled or malleate, the spire costulate. 



P. aurissileni Born, x, 65. P. blainvilleanus Pfr., x, 67. 

Auricula caprella Lam. var. loveni Pfr., x, 67. 

Carychium unduJatum Leach. P. lugubris Dkr., x., 68. 

Plekocheilus silent Beck. P. appuni Dkr., x, 68. 

P. fulminans Nyst, x, 66. 

Bulimus bellulus Jonas. 

var. linterae Sowb., x, 67. 

Section Eurytus Albers, 1850. 

Man. Conch., x, p. 69. Type P. pintadinus (Orb.). 
Shell granose or striate, rarely almost smooth. 

Group of P. speciosus. 

P. speciosus Pfr., x, 70. P. guentheri Sowb., xiv, 129. 

P. plectostylus Pfr., x, 70; xiv, B. guildingi Dohrn, x, 71, 

129. preoc. 

Group of P. aulacostylus. 

P. aulacostylus Pfr., x, 72. St. Lucia. 
B. Jentiginosus Redf. 

Group of P. coloratus. 

P. roseolabrum Sm. x, 73. P 

P. eros Angas, x, 74. P 

P. coloratus Nyst, x, 74, 198; P 

xiv, 129. P 

var. lamarckianus Pfr., x, 75. P 

var. ampullaroides Mss., x, 

75. P 

var. subplicatusPfr.,xiv, 130. P 

P. gibbonius Lea, x, 75. P 

B. gibboreus, Pfr.-Cless., xiv, P 

127. P 

P. doliarius DaC., xiv, 130. P 

P. episcopalis Pfr., x, 76. 

. corticosus Sowb., x, 76. 
. cardinalis Pfr., x, 77. 
. tetensi Dkr., x, 77. 
. couturesi Anc., xiv, 131. 

pulicarius Rve, x, 78. 

B. glandiformis, Pfr. 
. glandiformis Lea, x, 78. 

mabillei Crosse, x, 79 ; xiv, 127, 
. subglandiformis Mss., x, 80. 
. corydon Crosse, x, 80. 
. phoebus Pfr., x, 81. 
. taquinensis Pfr., x, 81. 

1'LEKOCHKlLLS, Til AUM AS I I >. xix 

Group of P. succiiioides. 

P. cathcartiae live., x, 82. P. succinoides Pet., x, 84; xiv, 128. 

P. (?) victor Pf'r., x, 82. B. succineoides Mart. 

P. jucundus Pfr. t x, 82. Succinea bulimoides Pfr. 

P. quadricolor Pfr., x, 83. B. latilabris Pfr. 

P. dalmasi Dautz., xiv, 128. P. calliostoma Dohrn, x, 85. 

P. argenteus Jouss., xiv, 128. 
P. veranyi Pfr., x, 83. 

var. scytodes Pfr., x, 84. 
sytodes Ads., x, 199. 

Group of P. castaneus. 

P. castaneus Pfr., x, 85; xiv, 131. P. jimenezi Hid., x, 86, 199. 
P. elaeodes Pfr., x, 86. B. gibbonius Hid. olim. 

P. aristaeus Crosse, x, 88, 199. 

Group of P. taylorianus. 
P. piperitus Sowb., x, 89. P. superstriatus Sowb., x, 91. 

P. pulicarius Bk., xiv, 132. var. prodeflexus Pils., x, 91. 

P. piperatoides Pils., xiv, 132. P. aureonitens Mill., x, 91. 
P. pseudopiperatu* Mor., x, 89. P. tricolor Pfr., x, 87; xiv, 131. 
P. taylorianus Rve., x, 90 ; xiv, var. sernipictus Hid., x, 87. 

132. ? SimpuJopsis fulgurata Mill., 

E. taylorioides Mill. xii, 227. 

Group of P.floccosus. 

P. floccosus Spix, x, 92. P. onca Orb., x, 93. 

P. lacrimosus Heimb., x, 199. B. onza Alb. 

P. pintadinus Orb., x, 93. P. lynciculus D. & H., x, 94. 

Helix pentad! na Orb. P. semperi Dohrn, x, 94. 

Genus THAUMASTUS Albers, 1860. 

Thaumastus ALB., as restricted by Pilsbry, Man. Conch, x, p. 43, 
type T. hartwegi Pfr. Orphnus ALB., preoc, type B. taunaisii. 
Orphaicus Schaufuss, in Paetel's Catal. 1864, p. 14, proposed as a 
substitute for Orphnus Tatutor Jouss., 1887, type T. tatutor. 

Shell rather large, narrowly umbilicate or imperforate, long-ovate 
with lengthened spire and blunt apex ; moderately solid, opaque, 
usually dark, streaked, and generally having a light peripheral band. 
Nepionic whorls 2^ to 3, sculptured with fine vertical waved or inter- 


rupted wrinkles, or thimble-pitted by regularly anastomosing wrinkles. 
Aperture less than half the shell's length, ovate, the outer lip obtuse, 
not expanded or but slightly so. Columellar lip reflexed, usually 
adnate, the short columella with a weak fold or none. 

Anatomy known from a specimen of T. magnificus from Piquete, 
Sao Paulo, Brazil, sent by Dr. H. von Ihering. The long lung is 
densely veined anteriorly, and posteriorly between the kidney and 
intestine (pi. 49, fig. 9, nat. size. The preparation figured has been 
extensively torn, as indicated). The kidney is triangular and as 
long as the pericardium. The secondary ureter is a closed tube 

The genital system (pi. 51, fig. 19, nat size), is Bulimuline. The 
penis is enlarged in the middle (fig. 17), having very thick, mus- 
cular walls and a small lumen (e). It is contracted above, plicate 
within, and receives the vas deferens some distance below the apex 
(see fig. 17). The retractor muscle is terminal. The base is en- 
circled by a sheath, within which a loop of the vas deferens descends 
(fig. 18). The vagina is short, plicate within. The duct of the 
spermatheca is very long, and becomes abruptly narrower in the 
middle (pi. 51, fig. 21); its lumen has finely plicate walls. 

The jaw (pi. 57, fig. 60) is composed of about a dozen broad flat 
plaits, well consolidated. 

The radula has 44, 1, 44 teeth (pi. 57, fig. 61). The centrals are 
tricuspid, laterals and marginal teeth bicuspid, of the ordinary 
Helicid type commonly occurring in Bulimulus. The splitting of the 
ectocone of tooth 18, figured, is somewhat abnormal. 

In T.foveolatus Binney found the jaw with over 50 delicate ribs, 
teeth 34, 1, 34, without side cusps on centrals and laterals. 

Distribution, southern Brazil and Bolivia to the head waters of the 
Amazon in Peru and Ecuador. 

I formerly considered this group a subgenus of Strophocheilus, on 
account of its comparatively large nepionic shell ; but the anatomy 
of T. taunaisii var. magnificus shows Thaumastus to belong near 
Bulimulus, Auris and Plekocheilus. It has nothing to do with 
Strophocheilus. The sculpture of the apex repeats patterns occurring 
in Bulimulus. The teeth, jaw and genitalia are Bulimuline in their 
main features. The reticulation of the lung is like that of Auris 

The species fall into four groups, as follows : 



a. Sliell distinctly perforate or umbilioate. 

b. Large, solid species, \vitli spiral scries of granules ; three 

earlier whorls densely wave-striate ; peristome expanded, 

subreflexed. Group of T. melanocheilns. 

b l . Smaller, more slender forms, with coarser, very irregular or 

dislocated wrinkles on the early whorls; peristome but 

slightly or not expanded. Group of T. bilseniatus. 

a 1 . Shell imperforate. 

b. Early whorls finely and densely wave-striate longitudinally. 

Group of T. taunaisii. 
b 1 . Early whorls thimble-pit ted v Group of T. thompsoni. 

Group of T. melanocheilns. 

T. melanocheilus Nyst, x, 44. T. granocinctus Pils., xiv, 126. 
T. sangoae Tschudi, x, 45. B.Jilocinctus Rolle. 

B. pangose Morel., x, 198. T. foveolatus Rve., x, 40. 

B. impressus Tschudi. 

Group of T. taunaisii. 

T. magnificus Grat., x. 46. 

v. monozonalis Dh., x, 47. 
T. tatutor Jouss., x, 47. 
T. taunaisii Fer., x, 48. 

? Helix pullata Fer. 
T. ascendens Pf'r., x, 49. 
T. plumbeus Pfr., x, 49. 
T. hector Pfr., x, 50. 
T. largillierti Pfr., x, 50. 

B. consimilis Rve. 

T. achilles Pfr., x, 51. 

v. nehringi Mart., x, 51. 
T. hartwegi Pfr., x, 52, 198. 

Zebra loxensis Miller. 
T. loxostomus Pfr., x, 52. 
T. salteri Sowb., x, 52. 
T. thompsoni Pfr., x, 53, 198. 
T. yanamensis Morel., x, 54, 198. 
T. viriatus Morel., x, 54. 
T. requieni Pfr., x, 55. 

Group of T. bitaniatus. 

T. spixii Wagn., x, 55. 

? B. hyalinus Spix. 

? Bulinus sordidus King. 
T. inca Orb., x, 56. 
T. tseniolus Nyst., x, 57. 
T. brephoides Orb., x, 57, 198. 
T. iserni Phil., x, 57, 198. 
T. tarmensis Phil., x, 60. 
T. bitaeniatus Nyst, x, 58 ; xiv, 

B. Phil. 

B. bifasciatus Phil. 

B. fusiformis Tsch n d i . 

form unicolor Phil., x, 59. 

v. alutaceus Rve.. x, 59, 198. 

v. jelskii Lub., x, 58. 
T. porphyreus Pfr., x, 60, 198. 
T. jaspideus Morel., x, 61. 


Genus XENOTHAUMA Fulton, 1896. 
This vol., p. 134. Type and sole species, X. baroni. 

This is probably, as I have elsewhere noted, a Scutalus specialized 
in the whole structure of the post-nepionic shell ; but so divergent 
that it deserves generic rank. 

X. baroni Fult., xiv, 134. Peru. 

Genus BULIMULUS Leach, 1815. 
Man. Conch., x, p. 125. Type B. guadalupensis Brug. 

Shell varying from ovate-conic to oblong, column-shaped, or 
rarely depressed and Helicoid ; flmbilicate or imperforate. Aperture 
with the outer lip usually thin, sometimes expanded. Columella 
straight or concave below, weakly folded above, the margin reflexed. 
Apical whorls variously sculptured (but never with an even, minute 
sculpture of pits in spiral and vertical series). 

The mantle generally bears two widely separated lobes. The 
kidney is the length of the pericardium and triangular. The reticu- 
lation of the lung is chiefly along the intestinal side, spreading to 
the other side near the pneumostome. The pulmonary vein domi- 
nates, though sometimes the first branch of the vena cava is well 
developed (pi. 53, figs. 30 to 33). 

The free retractors are typical of the family, the left tentacular 
and pharyngeal bands being more or less united proximally, and the 
right tentacular band arises from the face of the columellar muscle 
(pi. 54, fig. 39, B. dealbatus). As in other genera of the family, the 
columellar muscle is adnate throughout to the adjacent face of the 

The genital system is simple. The penis is long and generally 
twisted, the vas deferens and retractor muscle arising from its apex ; 
it is generally encircled around the base by a muscular sheath. The 
duct of the spermatheca is generally about as long as the oviduct. 
Some branches of the right tentacular muscle band are attached to 
the vagina and to the body-wall near the external opening. 

The jaw is arcuate and plaited, the plaits vertical in the middle, 
not converging to form a triangular area (pi. 57, fig. 62, B. dealbatus 

The radula has but slightly curved transverse rows of teeth, which 
are of the normal Helicid form. In the rhachidian teeth, the large 
mesocone usually is flanked by small etocones. The laterals have 


the mesocone large, ectocone well developed. This type is continued 
in the marginal teeth (pi. 57, fig. 63, B. Umnoides, after Binney ; 
fig. 64, B. dealbatns mooreanus). Distribution, from the southern 
United States to northern Patagonia. 

The genus Bulimulus is more widely distributed than any other 
group of the family. It is also the least specialized; the genera pre- 
ceding being variously specialized in shell characters, those following 
chiefly in characters of the teeth and jaws. It is likely that the com- 
mon ancestors of all Balimulidse were similar to Bulimulus both in 
internal structure and shells. 

The multitude of subgeneric and sectional names which have been 
proposed for minor groups of Bulimuli fall into three main divisions. 

I. Apical whorls smooth (p. xxiii.). 

II. Apical whorls irregularly wrinkled subvertically, or with the 
wrinkles waved, dislocated, or broken into a thimble-pitted 
reticulation (p. xxvi.). 
III. Apical whorls with regular, straight, vertical riblets (p. xxxii.). 

DIVISION I. Buh'muU with smooth apical whorls. 

The shell varies from obesely ovate to slender and column-shaped, 
or rarely Heliciform, and from umbilicate to imperforate. It is 
usually calcareous and opaque. The apical whorls are smooth and 
glossy, without sculpture of any kind. Aperture ovate -or angular, 
the outer lip usually thin and simple, rarely expanded. Columella 
foldless, dilated above. 

A group of plain-colored or whitish species characteristic of the 
Pacific slope and Andean highland, from Ecuador to Chili ; with a 
few thinner, corneous or brownish forms, referred here with some 
doubt, in Bolivia and Argentina. 

The species have in common a small, smooth, often teat-like 
nepionic shell. The subsequent growth is widely divergent in var- 
ious forms, and hence a large number of " sections " have been 
established, based upon the contour assumed by the adult shell 
natural groups, but of only minor systematic value. 

Section Platybostryx Pilsbry, 1896. 

Depressed, wider than high, acutely keeled at the periphery and 
around the broad, crater-shaped umbilicus. 
B. eremothauma Pils., x, 129. Chili. 
Helix reentsii Phil., preoc. 


Section Ataxas Albers, 1850. 

Long-conic, with 7-11 whorls coiled around a large, deep umbili- 
cus. Type B. umbilicaris. Peru. 

B. umbilicaris Soul., x, 130. B. huayaboensis Dautz., J. de C., 

B. infundibulifortnis Jay. 1902. 

B. infundibulum Pfr., x, 131. v. attenuata and rudis. 

v. umbilicatellus Pils., x, 131. B. moniezi Dautz, xiv, 136. 
B. tubulatus Morel., x, 132. f. albescens Dautz. 

B. scalaricosta Morel., x, 132. 

Section Bostryx Troschel, 1847. 

Turreted, wrinkled, the last whorl or two free or separated by deep 
sutures ; umbilicus inconspicuous. Type B. soltttus. Peru, Chili. 

B. solutus Trosch., x, 133. B. holostoma Pfr., x, 134. 

Section Geopyrgus Pils., 1896. 

Turreted, tapering, rimate, composed of 910 whorls. Peru. 
B. turritus Brod., x, 135, 200. 

Section Geoceras Pilsbry, 1896. 

Column-shaped, composed of 16-19 narrow whorls. Type B. 
columellaris. Andes of Peru. 

B. columellaris Rve., x, 136. B. veruculum Morel., x, 137. 

B. cuspidatus Morel., x, 137. 

Section Peronmts Alb., 1850. 

Rimate or perforate, long-fusiform, slender, with 7-11 whorls. 
Type B. pupiformis. 

(Group of B. papiformis. Chili, Peru.) 

B. pupiformis Brod., x, 138. B. baeri Dautz., xiv, 135. 

B. anachoreta Pfr., x, 139. B. iocosensis Dautz., xiv, 135. 

B. lactifluus Pfr., x, 140. B. emaciatus Morel., x, 143. 

B. atacamensis Pfr., x, 140. B. spiculatus Morel., x, 144. 

B. longurio Crosse. B. acromelas Morel., x, 144. 

B. nanus Rve., x, 141. B. lichenorum Orb., x, 145. 
B. Icucostictus Phil., x, 141. tichnorum Orb. 

B. scabiosus Sowb., x, 142. lichenum Beck. 

B. terebralis Pfr., x, 142. B. subcactorum Pils., x, 145. 

B. bisculptus Pfr., x, 142. B. tschudii Trosch., x, 146. 



(Group of B. williamsi. Peru, Argentina.) 

williamsi Pfr., x, 146. 
peliostonms " Phil." Pfr,, x, 


andiocus Morel., x, 147. 
productus Phil., x, 148. 
albicolor Morel., x, 148. 
lesueureanus Mor., x, 149. 

B. hamiltoni live., x, 149. 
B. elatus Phil., x, 150. 
B. ceratacme Pfr., x, 150. 
B. biformis Pfr., x, 151. 
B. wood ward i Pfr., x, 151. 
B. calchaquinus Doer., x, 151. 
B. famatimus Doer., x, 152. 




(Group of B. rhodacme. Chili, Peru.) 
rhodacme Pfr., x, 152. B. voithianus Pfr., xi, 322. 

pustulosus Brod., x, 153. boithyanus Ads. 

scalarioides Ph., x, 154. meridionalis Rve. 

feisthameli Htipe. 

Section Lissoacme Pils., 1896. 
Obese or ovate, umbilicate or perforate. Type B. erythrostomus. 

(Group of B. reentsi. Chala, Peru.) 
reentsi Phil., x, 155. B. denickei Gray. 

B. reentzi Schauf. B. deneckei H. & A. Ad. 

(Group of B. hennahi. Chili to Ecuador.) 



styliger Beck., x, 156. 
B. vittatus Brod. 
B. lemniscatus Dh. 
hennahi Gray, x, 156. 
rubescens Rve. 
lychnorum Sowb. 
cactorum Orb. 
virginalis Morel. 
metamorphuR Pils., x, 157 
limensis Rve., x, 158. 
ceroplasta Pils., x, 159. 
acalles Pfr., x, 160. 
erosus Brod., x, 160. 
conspersus Brod., x, 160. 
coagulatus Rve., x, 161. 
modestus Brod., x, 161. 
striatulus Sowb. 
orbigrtyi Pfr. 
delicatulus Phil., x, 162. 

B. sordidus Less., x, 163. 
B. guttatus Brod., x, 163. 
B. juana Cousin, x, 164. 
B. laurentii Sowb., x, 164. 

lorenzii Orb. 

B. scutulatus Brod., x, 165. 
B. limonoictis Orb., x, 165. 

cinereus Rve. 
B. depstus Rve., x, 181 ; xiv, 136. 

flagellatus Pils., x, 166. 
B. andicola Pfr., x, 166. 
B. ulloae Phil., x, 167. 
B. apertus Pfr., x, 168. 
B.(?) tumidulus Pfr., x, 168. 

Buli nus inflatus Brod. 
B. scalarif'ormis Brod., x, 169. 
B. rusticellus Mor., x, 170. 
B. devians Dohrn, x, 170. 
B. compactus Fult., xiv, 282. 



(Group of B. derelictus. Chili, Ecuador.) 
B. derelictus Bred., x, 172. B. umbilicatus Mill., x, 172. 

B. curtus Koch. Prov. Loja, Ecuador. 

(Group of B. erythrostomus. Chili.) 

B. erythrostomus Sowb., x, 173. B. mejillonensis Pfr., x, 177. 
v. albus Sowb., x, 174. 

olorinus Duel. 
B. huascensis Rve., x, 174. 
B. albicans Brod., x, 175. 

spixii Pot. & Mich. 
B. pruinosus Sowb., x, 175. 
B. rouaulti Hupe, x, 176. 
B. simpliculus Pfr., x, 176; xiv, 

( Group of B. striatus. 
B. striatus King, x, 179. 

callosus Phil. 

mexilloensis Schauf. 
B. affinis Brod., x, 177. 

v. paposensis Pfr., x, 178. 
B. callosus Pfr., x, 178. 
B. pervius Pfr., xiv, 139. 

Buliminus striatellus Bk. 
B. piuranus Alb., x, 180. 
B. alausiensis Cousin, x, 180. 
B. delumbis Eve., xiv, 138. 
B. nigropileatus Rve., x, 182 ; 

xiv, 137. 

v. stenacme Pfr,, x, 182. 
v. angrandianus, Pils., xiv, 

Peru, Ecuador.) 
radiatus Morel., x, 182. 

v. orophilus Morel., x, 183. 

v. balsanus Morel., x, 184. 

v. reconditus Rve., x, 181. 
B. cereicola Morel., x, 184. 

cercicola Morel. 
B. munsteri Orb., x, 185. 

B. cambus Gray. 
B. bilineatus Sowb., x, 187. 

(Group of B. apodemetes. Argentina, Bolivia.) 
B. apodemetes Orb., x, 187. B. fayssianus Pet., x, 192. 

pessulatus Rve. 
B. centralis Doer., x, 188. 
B. ventanensis Pils., x, 189. 
B. conospirus Doer., x, 189. 

B. turritellatus Bk., x, 193. 

Helix turritella Orb. 

v. pliculosa Anc., xiv, 139. 
?B. luridus Pfr., x, 194. 
Habitat unknown. 

B. oxylabris Doer., x, 190. 
B. stelzneri Dohrn, x, 190. 

DIVISION II. Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls sculptured with waved, 
zigzag or irregular subvertical wrinkles, or with the wrinkles dislo- 
cated and broken more or less into granules, or anastomosing to 
form a netted or thimble-like pattern. 


This group of forms inhabits temperate and tropical South Amer- 
ica, the Antilles and southern Mexico. The shell is ovate, less varied 
in form than in the preceding and following divisions. 

Subgenus PLECTOSTYLUS Beck, 1837. 

Manual xi, p. 2. In B. chilensis Semper found two small, widely 
separated body-lobes on the left margin of the mantle. The kidney 
is of the usual short, triangular form; geriitalia simple, the penis with 
terminal retractor, spermatheca lying near the heart, on a long duct 
The jaw is broad, strongly but irregularly ribbed. Radula with at 
least 101 teeth in a transverse row, the central tooth with short 
middle and obsolete side cusps, inner 14 laterals bicuspid, the inner 
cusp then appearing. Binney, who examined the same species, 
agrees as to the teeth. The rather strong development of the inner 
cusp gives the marginal teeth a strong resemblance to those of 
Drymceus. Type B. peruvianus. Almost wholly a group of the 
Chilian coastal region. 

B. coturnix Sowb., xi, 3. B. chilensis Less., xi, 8. 

B. broderipii Sowb., xi, 4. Achatina chiliensis Less. 

v. elongatus Orb., xiv, 140. B. granulosus Pot. & Mich. 

B. buschii Pfr., xi, 5. B. graniger Beck. 

B. variegatus Pfr., xi, 5. B. aldunatea Hupe. 

rupicolus Rve. Partula flavescens King. 

B. moestai Dkr., xi, 6. B. reflexus Pfr., xi, 9. 

B. peruvianus Brug., xi, 7. B. ochsenii Dkr., xi, 10. 

corrugatus King. arbustorum Phil. 

gravest King. B. coquimbensis Brod., xi, 10. 

B. punctulifer Sowb., xi, 317. v. perelegans Pils., xi, 11. 

B. prolatus Gld., xi, 318. elegans Pfr. 

B. filaris Pfr., xi, 316. 
hilarus H. & A. Ad. 

Subgenus SCUTALUS Alb. 

Man. Conch, xi, p. 12. 

The genital system in B. proteiformis, proteus and versicolor is 
simple, the penis and spermatheca duct long (pi. 52, fig. 20, B. ver- 
sicolor, after Strebel). The jaw is strong, arcuate, with rather wide 
plaits, not imbricating (pi. 59, fig. 5, B. proteus. after Strebel). 
Radula with 90 to 96 teeth in a transverse row in B. proteiformis, 



103 to 107 in B. proteus. The rhachidian and inner lateral teeth have 
no ectocones, an ectocone appearing on the 17th or 18th lateral. 
The marginal teeth are bicuspid (pi. 59, fig. 2, B. proteiformis, 
after Semper). 

(Group of B. proteus. Peru.) 
B. proteus Brod., xi, 13; xiv, B. baroni Full., xi, 172; xiv, 


B. steerei Pils., xiv, 140. 
B. versicolor Brod., xi, 16. 
vartfins Kiister. 
v. callaoensis Pils., xi, 16. 


sordidus Dh. 
B. mutabilis Brod., xi, 14. 

sordidus Rve. 
B. proteiformis Dohrn, xi, 14. 

B. coraeformis Pils., xi, 15 ; xiv, B. aquilus Rve., xi, 17. 

142. . 
B. cretaceus Pfr., xiv, 141. 

? B. mercurius Pfr., xiv, 140. 

(Group of B. tupacii. Andes of Peru and Bolivia.) 
B. revinctus Hupe, xi, 17. B. purpuratus Rve., xi, 21. 

B. gayi Pfr., xi, 18. B. weddelli Hupe, xi, 21. 

B. tupacii Orb., xi, 19 ; xiv, 142. B. nemorensis < Ph.' Pfr., xi, 22. 
B. thamnoicus Orb., xi, 19 ; xiv, B. angrandi Mor., xi, 23. 

142. B. alauda Hup<5, xi, 23. 

B. pluto Crosse, xi, 20. B. nucinus Rve., xi, 24. 

B. petiti Pfr., xi, 21. 

( Group of B culmineus. Andes of Peru and Bolivia.) 

B. culmineus Orb., xi, 25. 

jussieui ' Val.,' Pt'r. 
B. subjussieui Pils.. xi, 26. 

jussieui Hupe. 
B. lithoicus Orb., x, 179. 

culminans Rve. 
B. pentlandi Rve., xii, 27. 

B. edwardsi Mor., xi, 27. 

B. badius Sowb., xi, 28. 

B. polymorphus Orb., xi, 28, 320. 

B. promethus Cr., xi, 28. 

B. ferrugineus Rve., xi, 29. 

B. peristomatus Doer., xi, 29. 

( Group of B. sequatorius. Andes of Ecuador.) 

B. sequatorius Pfr., xi, 30. 
B. ochraceus Mor., xi, 31. 
B. cotopaxiensis Pfr., xi, 31. 
B. subfasciatus Pfr., xi, 32. 
B. anthisanensis Pfr., xi, 32. 
antisanensis Alb. Mart. 

B. caliginosus Rve., xi, 33. 
B. cousini Jouss., xi, 33. 
B. quitensis Pfr., x, 158. 

v. irregularis Pfr., xi, 34. 

v. catlowia3 Pfr., xi, 34. 

BULIMlI.l >. 

Subgenus BuLIMULUS (restricted). 

Man. Conch, xi, p. 35. Type B. guadalupenfis Brug. Includes 
Leptomerus Albers 

The shell is rather small, brown or corneous-brown, rarely with a 
few wide bands ; lip and columella simple. 

The kidney is as long as the pericardium, and triangular. The 
venation of the lung is chiefly on the intestinal side, and is faint ex- 
cept for the pulmonary vein, which has no large branches (pi. 53, 
fig. 31, B. guadalupensis. The figure is diagrammatic and the veins 
on the cardiac side are represented too strong). 

Genitalia (pi. 52, fig. 24, B. guadalupensis, form acutus Leach, 
from Guadalupe) characterized by the long and very much twisted 
penis, and tin; spermathecal duct, which is shorter than in other 
groups of Bulimulina, and inserted upon the. atrium, there being no 
vagina. Other organs as usual. In a Porto Rican form identified as 
fraterculus, Pfeffer found the penis only moderately contorted and 
the spermathecal duct very long (Beitrage, v, p. 56). This agrees 
with Fischer's dissection of a specimen of guadalupensis from Pointe- 
a-Pitre (pi. 59, fig. 3) in which the duct of the spermatheca is very 
long. The penis is apparently provided with a flagellum, figured 
but not mentioned by Fischer. No flagellum is mentioned by 
Semper, who dissected a specimen from Barbados, and I think it 
undoubtedly a mistake. 

The jaw is of the vertically plaited type, with 15-18 plaits, not 
converging in the middle. Radula characterized by tricuspid central 
teeth, the middle cusp very long, reaching over the margin of the 
basal plate. Laterals bicuspid (pi. 57, fig. 63, B. limnoides, after 

Antillean Species. 

. B. guadalupensis Brug., xiv, 143. B. nichollsi A. D. B., xi, 40. 
H. exilis Gmel., xi, 37. B. riisei Pfr., xi, 41. 

B. acutus Leach. B. lehmanni Pfr., xi, 42. 

B. trifasciatus Leach. B. limnoides Fer., xi, 42. 

B. rubrifasciatus Rve. lymnoides Rve. 

B. simplex Beck. Jimnseoidcs Alb. 

(?) B. antiguensis Gldg., B. chrysalis Pfr., xi, 43. 

Swains. B. semicinctus Pils., xi, 44. 

v. eyriesii Drou., xi, 39, 320. B. Iherminieri Fisch., xi, 44. 
fraterculus&uct., xiv, 143. B. houelmontensis Cr., xi, 45. 



B. fraterculus " Per.," P. & M., (?) B. stenogyroides Gupp., xi, 49, 

xi, 46. 

B. diaplwnus Pfr., xi, 47. 
B. martinicensis Pfr., xi, 47. 
B. mazei Cr., xi, 48. 
B. barbadensis Pfr., xi, 48. 
fuscus Gldg. 

B. sepulcralis Poey, xi, 49. 

uriuarius Poey., oli'm. 
(?)B. indistinctus Pfr., xi, 144. 
moniJifer Rve. 

Central American Species. 

B. inermis Morel., xi, 51. B. corneus Sowb., xi, 54. 
B. coriaceus Pfr., xi, 51 ; xiv, v. nubeculatus Pfr., xi, 55 

143. v. minor Mart., xi, 56. 

behrendti, Pfr., berendti Pfr. B. sarcodes Rve., xi, 56. 

(?) B. umbralicus Rve., xi, 52; B. dysoni Pfr., xi, 56. 

xiv, 144. v. ignavus Rve., xi, 57. 

B. unicolor Sowb., xi, 53. 

v. istapensis C. & F., xi, 53. 
v. petenensis Morel., xi, 54. 

Species of Northwestern South America. 

B. dysoni Pfr., xi, 57; xiv, 144. 
B. buenavistensis Pils., xi, 59. 

corneus Lea. 
B. juvenilis Pfr., xi, 59. 
B. cacticolus Rve., xi, 60. 
B. erectus Rve., xi, 60. 
B. marmatensis Pfr., xi, 61. 

B. hyaloideus Pfr., xi, 61.' 
B. glandiniformis Sowb., xi, 61 
B. krebsianus Pils., xi, 62. 
B. hachensis Rve., xiv, 144. 
B. fonfainii Orb., xi, 62. 
B. ucayalensis Cr., xi, 63. 
B. molecillus Rve., xi, 63. 

Species of N. E. South America to Argentina. 

Argentine species described by Doering and Strobel are of uncer- 
tain position, and may belong here or to Lissoacme (page xxvi). 
B. orthodoxus Dr., xi, 64. B. sporadicus Orb., xi, 67. 

B. eganus Pfr., xi, 64. 

B. tenuissimus Orb., xi, 64, 320. 

thoreyi Beck. 
B. puellaris Rve., xi, 66. 
B. gorritiensis Pils., xi, 66. 

subtropicalis Doer, 
v. bonariensis Strob., xi, 68. 
v. montevidensis Pfr., xi, 68. 
yelidus Rve. 


B. corumbaensis Pils., xi, 68. B. fourmiersi Orb., xi, 71. 

amcemts Bonnet. B. simplex Hupe, xi, 72. 

B. vesicalis Pf'r., xi, 69. B. heloicus Orb., xi, 72. 

v. uruguayanus Pils., xi, 69. B. nivalis Orb., xi, 72. 

B. rushii Pils., x, 70. B. plicatulus Pfr., xi, 72. 
B. mendozanus Strob., xi, 71. pliculatus Pfr.-CIess. 

v. bonaerensis Doer., xi, 319. B. castelnaui Pfr., xi, 73. 

v. azulensis Doer., xi, 319. B. luteolus Anc., xiv, 145. 

B. tortoranus Doer., x, 192. B. stilbe.Pils., xiv, 145. 

B. cordillerae Strob., x, 191 B. dukinfieldi Melv.. xiv, 146. 

B. monticola Doer., x, 191.. B. marcidus Rve., xiv, 146. 
B. aguirrei Doer., xi, 320. 

Habitat unknown. 
B. indistinctus Pfr., xiv, 144. B. inutilis Rve., xi, 73. 

monilifer Rve. B. haplochrous Pfr., xi, 74. 

B. transparens Rve., xi, 73. 

Section Dentaxis Pilsbry, 1902. 

Cylindric-tapering, tlie nepionic shell with slight waved wrinkles 
and stronger spiral striae ; columella bearing a tooth-like fold ; outer 
lip thin and unexpanded. 
B. dentaxis Pils., xiv, 143. Peru. 

Section Rhinus Albers, 1860. 

Nepionic whorls finely and densely zigzag striate or with inter- 
rupted waved striae, the cuticle elsewhere hairy or bristly in spiral 
lines. Type B. heterotrichus. 

The jaw of B. constrictus, examined by Schako, is composed of 11 
wide plaits. The radula has 27, 1, 27 teeth, in rows straight in the 
middle, a little arcuate at the ends ; centrals tricuspid, laterals bi- 
cuspid ; both radula and jaw agreeing with those of Bulimulus s. str. 

All of the species are Brazilian except B. donstrictus, from Vener 
zuela, and argentinus* from Entre-rios. 

B. heterotrichus Moric., xi, 75. B. longiseta Moric., xi, 77. 

(?) Helix tumida Gmel. B. scobinatus Wood, xi, 77; 

v. subtenuis Pils., xi, 76. xiv, 147. 

B. velutinohispidus Moric., xi, 76. B. ciliatus Gld., xi, 78. 

hirtus Beck. B. koseritzi Cless., xi, 79. 


B. sarcochilus Pfr., xi, 80. B. pubescens Moric., xi, 81. 

B. constrictus Pfr., xi, 80. B. argentinus Anc., xiv. 147. 

tateanus Guppy. B. beterogrammus Mor., xi, 321. 

angosturensis Grun. 

DIVISION III. Bulimuli with the nepionic whorls sculptured with 

regular, straight vertical riblets. 

Discontinuously distributed from the south-central United States 
southward to the Galapagos and Peru in the west, and Argentina in 
the east. Sufficient magnification usually shows delicate spiral stria3 
between the riblets of the nepionic shell. In Neopetrceus and Drymceus 
this sculpture becomes far more strongly developed. The shell is 
dull, brown or white, sometimes streaked but very rarely banded. 
The contour varies from ovate to pillar-shaped. The sections are 
separated chiefly by their geographic distribution, and merely stand 
for groups of species of common ancestry, none of which have 
diverged much structurally from the precursor of the entire series. 

Section Protoglyptus Pils., 1897. 

Man. Conch, xi, p. 84. 

A group of northern and eastern South America, extending into 
some of the Caribbean islands. The Peruvian species are whitish 
and calcareous ; the others are thin, brown or corneous, and fre- 
quently hairy. Binney found the jaw and teeth of B. durus similar 
to those of typical Bulimulus. 

B. pilosus Guppy, xi, 85. B. crepundia Orb., xi, 90. 

B. sancta3lucise Sm., xi, 86. constrictus Rve. 

v. Iucia3 Pils., xi, 86. redditus Rve. 

B. chrysaloides Pils., xi, 87. B. rivasii Orb., xi, 91. 

B. durus Spix, xi, 87. B. trichodes Orb., xi, 92; xiv, 148. 

B. ovulum Rve., xi, 88. B. exornatus Rve., x, 171 ; xiv, 

B. pachys Pils., xi, 88. 137, 282. 

B. eudioptus Pils., xi, 89. ***** 

B. montivagus Orb., xi, 90. B. pileiformis Moric., xiv, 149. 

cutisculptus Anc., xiv, 147. * * * * 

v. chacoensis Anc., xiv, 147. B. glyptocephalus Pils., xi, 93. 
B. pollonerae Anc., xiv, 148. B. sarcochrous Pils., xi, 93. 

B. haematospira Pils., xiv, 149. 

BULIMULUS. xxxiii 

Section Ncesiotus Albers, 1850. 

Ncesiotus ALB., Die Heliceen, p. 162, -f- Rhaphiellus PFR. -f Pele- 
costoma Reibisch (in part). Man. Conch., xi, p. 94. 

A group of rather small species, including all Bulimvlidee of the 
Galapagos Islands. The surface is frequently wrinkled and gener- 
ally striate spirally. 

The genital system (pi. 59, fig. 6, B. nux, after Binney) is simple. 
penis long and slender, with terminal vas deferens. The duct of the 
ovate spermatheca is about as long as the penis, much shorter than 
the oviduct, and arises from the atrium. The jaw is composed 
of numerous flat plaits, 12 in B. bauri to 18 in B. nux, and is similar 
to that of typical Bulimulus. The radula has teeth in 
B. bauri, in B. eschariferus var. ventrosus, in 
B. nux. The teeth (pi. 59, fig. 8, B. bauri, after Dall) are essen- 
tially alike in many species examined, the centrals being tricuspid, 
with the middle cusp large, as long as the basal plate ; laterals 
bicuspid. The marginal teeth have a long, bifid inner cusp, and the 
outer cusp is split into several denticles. In this last character only 
does Nxsiotus differ from typical Bulimulus in what is known of the 
soft anatomy, though the duct of the spermatheca is somewhat shorter 
than usual in Bulimulus. The splitting of the outer cusp indicates 
terrestrial rather than arboreal feeding. 

B. achatellinus Fbs., xi, 99. B. calvus Sowb., xi, 105. 

achatinellinus Pfr. B. nucula Pfr., xi, 106. 

achatinellus Ads. B. galapag&nus Pfr., xi, 107. 

B. nux Brod., xi, 100. B. eschariferus Sowb., xi, 108; 

nuciformis Petit. xiv, 152. 

v. incrassatus Pfr., xi, 102. rugulosus Rve. 

v. verrucosus Pfr., xi, 102. bizonalis Anc. 

v. asperatus Alb., xi, 102. subconoidalis Anc. 

invalidus Reib. v. pileatus Dall, xi, 109. 

B. approximatus Dall, xiv, 150. v. ventrosus Reib., xi, 109. 

B. rugulosus Sowb., xi, 103. B. perspectivus Pfr., xi, 110. 

v. infuscatus Anc., xi, 103. rugulosus Reib. 

v. nudus Reib., xi, 103. B. snodgrassi Dall, xiv, 150. 
B. planospira Anc., xi, 104. 
B. ustulatus Sowb., xi, 104. 

venustus Reib. 


B. jacobi Sowb., xi, 111 ; xiv, B. sirnrothi Reib., xi, 117. 

151. tortuganus Dall. 

(?) avellana Beck. B. bauri Dall, xi, 118. 

v. pallidus Reib., xi, 112. B. amastroides Anc., xi, 118. 

v. cinereus Reib., xi, 112. B. curtus Reib., xi, 119. 

vermiculatus Dall. anceyi Dall. 

B. olla Dall, xi, 113. B. canaliferus Reib., xi, 119. 

jacobi Rve. B. sculpturatus Pfr., xi, 120. 

B. tanneri Dall, xi, 113; xiv, B. rugiferus Sowb., xi, 121. 

152. B. nesioticus Dall, xi, 122. 

funneri Dall. B. reibischi Dall, xi, 122. 
B. duncanus Dall, xi, 114; xiv, B. indefatigabilis Dall, xiv, 152.- 

152. B. habeli Stearns, xi, 123. 
B. darwini Pfr., xi, 115. terebra Reib. 

manini Cpr. B. chemnitzioides Forbes, xi, 
B. wolfi Reib., xi, 115. 124. 

B. hoodensis Dall, xiv, 151. lima Reib. 

B. unifasciatus Sowb.. xi, 116. 

Section Orthotomium Crosse and' Fischer. 

Manual xi, p. 125. 

The mantle has two short, widely separated lobes, with another 
near the anal orifice (pi. 53, fig. 32, B. montezuma). 

The kidney and lung are as usual in the subfamily; the venation 
of the latter being confined to the area between the last fold of the 
gut and the pulmonary Vein, and anteriorly on the cardiac side as 
far as the first branch of the vena cava. Elsewhere the venation is 
very slightly developed (pi. 53, fig. 30, B. dealbatus ; fig. 33, B. 
montezuma, both double natural size). 

The muscles are as usual in the family (pi. 54, fig. 39, B. deal- 

Genitalia. The long penis is moderately twisted, bears the 
retractor muscle at the apex, the vas deferens at or near it, and is 
encircled by a muscular sheath at the base. The vagina is 
moderately long ; the spermatheca oval or globose, on a duct fully as 
long as the oviduct (pi. 52, fig. 23, B. dealbatus; fig. 25, B, monte- 
zuma, double natural size; fig. 28, B. pallidwr, three times natural 

The jaw is arcuate, bearing flat plaits which do not imbricate, and 


are parallel in the middle (pi. 57, fig. 62, B. d. mooreanus). The 
radula (pi. 57, fig. 64, B. d. nworeanus), as in typical Bulimulus, the 
lateral and marginal teeth being bicuspid, centrals with small or 
subobsolete ectocones. 

Distribution, Central and Northern Mexico, Lower California, 
and the Southwestern United States. 

Group of B. alternatus. N.-E. Mexico, Texas to Ky. 

B. durangoanus Mart., xi, 1*27. v. schiedeanus Pfr., xi, 131. 

B. dealbatus Say, xi, 128; xiv. niveus Hegewisch. 

152. candidissimus Nyst. 

liquabilis Rve. xanthostomus Wiegm. 

confinis Rve. v. patriarcha W. G. B. xi, 132. 

v. nigromontanus Dall, xi, B. alternatus Say, xi, 132; xiv, 

128. 152. 

v. ragsdalei Pils., xi, 129. lactarius Mke. 

v. pasonis Pils., 1902. v. marise Alb., xi, 133. 

v. mooreanus ' WGB.' Pfr. xi, binneyanus Pfr. 

1 30. galeottii Nyst. 

schiedeanus auct. albidus Taylor. 

Group of B. sufflatus. Lower California. 

B. sufflatus Gld., xi, 136. B. recognitus Mab., xi, 137. 

vBsicalis Gld. B. pilula W. G. B., xi, 138. 

juarezi Pfr. B. cooperi Dall, xi, 139. 

v. insularis Coop., xi, 137. B. decipiens Coop., xi, 139. 

v. chinchensis Coop., xi, 137. B. levis Dall, xi, 140. 

Group of B. montezuma. Lower Cal.; Sinaloa. 

B. excelsus Gld., xi, 141. B. acholus Mab., xi, 143. 

elatus Gld. B. cosmicus Mab., xi, 144. 

v. sinaloas Pils., xi, 142. B. montezuma Dall, xi, 144. 
B. pallidior Sowb., xi, 142. proteus auct. Amer. 

vegetus Gld. B. baileyi Dall, xi, 145. 

v. striatulus Dall, xi, 143. B. gabbi C. & F., xi, 147. 
vegexspiza Coop. 


Group of B inscendens. Lower California. 
B. xantusi W. G. B., xi, 148. B. cacotycus Mab., xi, 150. 
B. digueti Mab., xi, 148. B. inscendens W. G. B., xi, 150. 

B. beldingi Coop., xi, 149. 

v. alta Dall, xi, 149. 

v. monticola Dall, xi, 150. 

Section Plicolumna Cooper, 1895. 

Vol. xi, p. 151. Slender and column-shaped. Distribution, 
Lower California. 

B. artemisia W. G. B., xi, 152. B. abbreviatus Coop., xi, 153. 
artemesia auct. B. ramentosus Coop., xi, 153. 

Section Sonorina Pilsbry, 1896. 

Leptobyrsus C. & F. not Leptobyrsa Stal. Columella bearing a 
strong, callous lamella within the last whorl. Distribution, Lower 
B. rimatus Pfr., xi, 157. B. veseyianus Dall, xi, 160. 

bryanti Coop. B. lepido vagus Mab., xi, 161. 

B. spirifer Gabb, xi, 158. B. dentifer Mab., xi, 161. 

v. orthelasmus Pils., xi, 159. B. dismenicus Mab., xi, 162. 
B. lamellifer Pils., xi, 160. B. subspirifer Mab., xi, 162. 

Genus NEOPETR..EUS Martens, 1885. 
Manual, xi, p. 163 ; xiv, p. 152. Type N. millegranus Mart. 

This group is closely related to Drymceus, from which the shell 
differs in having the vertical riblets of the nepionic shell wider spaced 
and stronger than the spirals ; though both are sometimes obsolete, 
leaving the apex smooth. 

The jaw is like that of DrymcEus, composed of 21 (lobbi, pi. 59, 
fig. 1, after Binney) to 31 (altoperuvianus) delicate imbricating ribs, 
which converge in the middle. The radula is broad, with numerous 
teeth in each row (90.1.90 in N. lobbi, pi. 59, fig. 9, after Binney). 
The centrals have a single long cusp ; the laterals bear a very long, 
oblique, broad cusp, notched near the apex, the central and inner 
cusps being concrescent. The marginal teeth in N. lobbi have a 
large ectocone, and the united middle and inner cusps are shorter 
thus resembling the laterals of Drymaeus, but in N. altoperuvianus 
(pi. 59, fig. 4, after Binney) the marginal teeth are of the same 
type as the laterals. The anatomy is otherwise unknown. 

Distribution, Andes of Peru. 


N. binneyanus Pfr., xi, 164. (?) N. heterogyrus Phil., xi, 174. 

N. vadum Pils., xi, 165. N. sowerbyi Rve., xi, 174. 

N. filiola Pils., xi, 165. N. arboriferus Pils.,xi, 175; xiv, 
N. cora Orb., xi, 166. 153. 

v. unicolor Pfr., xi, 167. f. rectistrigatus Pils., xi, 176. 

N. tessellatus Shutt., xi, 167. f. latistrigatus Pils., xi, 176. 

v. atahualpa Dohrn, xi, 168. N. patasensis Pfr., xi, 176; xiv, 

v. perincrassatus Pils., xi, 169. 153. 

N. papillatus Morel., xi, 169. N. lobbi Rve., xi, 177; xiv, 153. 
N. catamarcanus Pfr., xi, 170. v. ptychostylus Pfr., xi, 178. 

N. millegranus Mart., xi, 170. N. decussatus Rve., xi, 178; xiv, 
N. rhodolarynx Rve., xi, 171. 154. 

devillei Hupe. v. myristicus Rve., xi, 178. 

N. platystornus Pfr., xi, 172; xiv, v. brownii Pils., xi, 179. 

153. N. ccerulescens Pfr., xi, 180. 
N. altoperuvianus Rve., xi, 173. v. columna Pils., xi, 180. 

v. gracilior Pils., xi, 173. 

Genus OXYCHONA Morch, 1852. 

Man. Conch, xi, p. 181. Type 0. bifasciata Burrow. 

Shell trochiform, with conspicuous peripheral keel, the nepionic 
whorls evenly latticed, as in Dryin&us. Jaw composed of many 
vertical plaits, not converging in the middle. Radula with V-shaped 
rows of nearly similar teeth throughout, the middle cusps very large, 
spatulate ; ectocones wanting on the central, present on the lateral 
teeth. Basal plates rather large and squarish (see vol. ix, p. 189, 
pi. 51, figs. 9, 10, 11, teeth and jaw of 0. bifasciata). Genitalia 

In the peculiar teeth of the radula, arranged in strongly V-shaped 
rows, Oxychona resembles Zaplagius. But in the latter group 
entocones are distinctly developed on all but the three inner lateral 
teeth, and the basal-plates are narrow. Liostracus has a some- 
what similar dentition, owing to the wide mesocones; but the rows 
of teeth are nearly straight, and the structure of both basal-plate and 
cusps is more like normal Drymaus. In Zaplagius the outer mar- 
ginal teeth are distinctly less modified than the rest of the radula, 
but in Oxychona the whole series is modified. 

Species all of eastern Brazil, and evidently arboreal. The 
pertinence of 0. gyrina Val. to Oxychona is doubtful, as neither the 


apical sculpture or tlie dentition is -known. It probably groups with 

B. pileiformis Moric. 

O. bifasciata Burr., v, 129; xi, O. lonjhostoma Mke., v. 130. 

181. ?O. gyrina Val., v, 131. 

v. mimarum Anc., xiv, 154. 

Genus ZAPLAGIUS Pilsbry, 1896. 

Nautilus ix, p. 115, Feb., 1896; Man. Conch, xi, 185. Type 
Helix navicula Wagn. Navicula Spix, 1827, not of Blainville, 
1825 Otostomus of some authors. 

Shell conic or obliquely conic, with the apical sculpture of typical 
Drymaus, and a keel around the truncate or flattened base ; the last 
whorl ascending, lip expanded or reflexed, thin. 

Jaw deeply arched, with narrow plaits (43 in aurisleporis) con- 
verging mesially as in Drymceus. 

Two widely separated lobes are on the left edge of the mantle. 
The kidney is the length of the pericardium (Semper). 

The genital system (pi. 50, h'g. 8, Z. aurisleporis, after Semper) is 
simple, the long slender penis having a terminal retractor, and the 
ovate spermatheca a long duct, as in Bulinmlus, J)rymdeus, etc. 

The radula (of Z. aurisleporis, pi. 58, figs. 70-7 4, from a specimen 
supplied by Dr. H. v. Ihering) has 37.1.37 teeth in V-shaped rows 
(pi. 58, fig. 74). The median tooth of each row has an exceedingly 
large, rounded cusp, the basal-plate being narrow except under the 
cusp. The lateral teeth have similar but subangular cusps, more or 
less emarginate near the inner side, indicating the concrescence of 
an entocone with the mesocone; and far back there is a minute, 
vestigeal outer cusp, remote from the main cusp, as in some 
Urocoptidse. The fourth to sixth laterals show the entocone as a 
short prong, becoming stronger as we pass outward on the radula 
(fig. 70, llth and 12th, and fig. 71, 21st and 22d teeth). The mar- 
ginal teeth (pi. 58, fig. 73, 33d to 37th teeth) have a large mesocone, 
a retreating and distinct entocone, and the ectocone has traveled for- 
ward, become larger and usually bifid. They thus approximate to 
the marginals of typical DrymcKus. 

With the apical sculpture, jaw, and general anatomy of Drymseus, 
this group seems sufficiently specialized in dentition and shell to 
stand as a distinct genus. Its close relationship to Oxychona can 
hardly be doubted. The eastern Brazilian Otostomus signatus may 
also be related, but its soft anatomy is unknown. 


Z. navicula Wngn., xi, 186. /. aiirislrporis Bni<r., xi, 189. 

N. fasciata Spix. B. la got is Mke. 

v. lateritius Pils., xi, 320. Auricula leporis Lam. 

Z. involutus Mart., xi, 187. Stenostoma auritum Spix. 

Z. uranops Pils., xi, 188. f. intension Pils., xi, 190. 

Z. lateralis Mke., xi, 188. Z. anrismuris Moric., xi, 191. 

Helix uniangulata Fer. 

Genus DRYMyEUS Albers, 1850. 
Drymxus ALB., Die Hel., p. 155, types B. xanthostoma and B. 

hygrohylseus. PILSBRY, Manual, xi, p. 191. 

In this group the shell is generally of lighter structure and brighter 
color than in Bulimulus. With the exception of the aberrant sub- 
genus Leiostracus, all of the species have a characteristic pattern 
of apical sculpture, consisting of minute pits arranged with great 
regularity in spiral and vertical lines. 

The external anatomy, free muscles, and pallial organs are prac- 
tically identical with those of Bulimulus (pi. 54, fig. 40, D. acervafus 
Pfr., x 2). The secondary ureter is closed nearly to the end. The 
genital system is similar to that of Bulimulus. 

The jaw is strongly arched, thin and flexible, composed of many 
narrow plaits, narrowly imbricating, and obliquely converging toward 
the median line, usually leaving a triangular plait or several short, 
wedge-shaped plaits in the middle. The lower or cutting margin is 
often more or less serrate (pi. 50, fig. 1, D. virginalis, after Schako; 
pi. 58, fig. 69, D. acervatus). 

Radula rather broad, with a great number of teeth, 115 to over 
150, in each transverse row. The rows are more or less angular in 
the middle, but not markedly V-shaped (pi. 50, fig. 2, D. virginalis, 
after Schako; pi. 58, fig. 75, D. acervatus, inverted). 

The lateral teeth are oblique, tricuspid, the ento- and meso-cones 
more or less united basally ; the ectocones become split upon the outer 
laterals and the marginal teeth. The rhachidian tooth varies widely, 
being tricuspid in some, unicuspid in other species (pi. 58, figs. 77, 
79, D. acervatus; pi. 60, figs. 14, 15, D. vincentinus; pi. 60, fig. 16. 
D. inter purictus}. In general, the lateral and marginal series of teeth 
are scarcely differentiated, all the side teeth being practically of one 
type. Distribution, tropical and subtropical regions of America, 
living chiefly on plants. 

This genus is readily distinguished from Bulimulus by the sculp- 
ture of the apex (as in pi. 15, fig. 31). Zaplagius, Oxychona, Otos- 
tomus, Odontostomus, which have the same apical sculpture, differ in 
other conchological characters, as well as in dentition. The mar- 
ginal teeth of Plectostylus resemble those of Drymseus, but in all 
other Bulimulid genera the form of the teeth is different. It will 
readily be understood that since the apical sculpture has rarely been 
mentioned in descriptions, a number of the species not known to me 
by specimens are placed in this genus provisionally, from their gen- 
eral resemblance to forms known to belong here. Previous to the 
discovery that the apical sculpture is correlated with a certain type 
of jaw and teeth, there was no definite criterion for the classification 
of the species of Bulimulus and Drymaeus, although von Martens, 
Crosse and Fischer, W. G. Binney and Pfeffer had recognized that 
two diverse types of lingual armature were found among the species 
usually classified as Bulimulus. 

The dentition deserves, and would well repay, an extended study. 
In some forms, such as D. inter punctus (pi. 60, fig. 16), there are 
excessively numerous and very minute teeth, in which the basal 
plate is so thin, and contains so small an amount of conchiolin, that 
it is scarcely or not visible. The rhachidian tooth has three cusps, 
the mesocone but slightly larger than the ectocones ; and it is often 
perceptibly asymmetrical. The rows of teeth run backward each 
side of the middle, then turn forward (pi. 50, fig. 2). Radulse of this 
type have been found in D. interpunctus (see pi. 60, fig. 16), D. vir- 
ginalis (Schako), D. dormani (Binney), palpaloensis and sulphureus 
(Pfeffer). All of these are thin-shelled species with thin, simple 

A modification of this type is seen in D. laticinctus, immaculatus, 
bahamensis, etc., in which the single broad cusp of the rhachidian 
tooth is notched (see Binney, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. Ill, pi. 12, 
f. I. H. F.). 

In another series the rhachidian tooth has a single rather narrow 
cusp (pi. 60, figs. 14, 15, D. vincentinus]. The rows of teeth bend 
about as in D. interpunctus, but to a less extent, and more gradually. 

In D. arervatus (pi. 58, figs. 75, 77, 79) the basal plates are less 
indistinct ; the rhachidian tooth is tricuspid, the mesocone much 
longer than the blunt ectocones. The rows of teeth run slightly 
backward from the middle towards the margins, and are without the 
double sinuation described above. 



In lAostracus, Zaplagius and Oxychona the rows of teeth run 
obliquely forward from the middle towards the margins, as in the 
OrthaliciiKK and most other land snails which have oblique rows. 

Group of D. insequalis. N, 
D. abyssorum Orb. xi, 192 ; xiv, D. 

154. D. 

D. bolivarii Orb., xi, 193. D. 

D. brachystoma Orb., xi, 193. D. 
D. marmarinus Orb., xi, 194; xiv, D. 

154. D. 
D. hygrohylieus Orb., xi, 194; 

xiv, 154. D. 

D. coarctatus Pfr., xi, 195. D. 

D. schmidti Pfr., xi, 195. D. 

coarctatus Rve. D. 

D. xanthostoma Orb., xi, 196. D. 
D. zoographicus Orb., xi, 197. 

D. beyerleanus Hupe, xi, 197. D. 

D. interpictus Mart., xi, 198. D. 

D. inaequalis Pfr., xi. 199. D. 

D. petasites Mill., xi, 199. D. 

D. orthostoma Sm., xi, 200. D. 

D. albolabiatus Sm., xi, 201. D. 
D. fusoidesOrb.,xi,201;xiv,154. D. 
D. lusorius Pfr., xi, 202. 

D. lophoicus Orb., xi, 202. D. 

Species of Colombia 

D. violaceus Mouss., xi, 207. D. 

eversus Mouss. . D, 

D. oonfluens Pfr., xi, 208. D. 
D. baranguillanus Pfr., xi, 208. 

D. flexuosus Pfr., xi, 209. D. 

D. membielinus Cr., xi, 209. D. 
D. eognatus Pils., xiv, 155. 

D. hidalgoi DaC., xi, 210. D. 

D. signifer Pfr., xi, 210. D. 

D. felix Pfr., xi, 211. D. 

Argentina to Ecuador, 
feriatus Rve.. xi, 203. 
yungasensis Orb., xi, 203. 
andai Jouss., xi, 212. 
ochrocheilus Sm., xi, 204. 
cantatus Rve., xi, 205. 
peelii Rve., xi, 205; xiv, 154. 
v. fordii Pils., xi, 205. 
germaini Anc., xi. 206. 
subeffusus Phil., xi, 217. 
linostoma Orb., xi, 218. 
serratus Pfr., xi, 218. 
dacostianus Pils., xi, 219. 
lucidus DaCosta. 
baezensis Hid., xi, 219. 
subsimilaris Pils., xi, 222. 
aequatorianus Sm., xi, 220. 
recedens Pfr., xi, 221. 
eurystomus Ph., xi, 221. 
elsteri DaC., xiv, 156. 
jousseaumei Dautz. J. de C., 

scoliodes Dautz. J. de C., 1901. 

and Venezuela. 
elegantissimus Mss., xi, 211. 
ziczac DaC., xi, 212. 
bogotensis Pfr., xi, 212. 
spectatus Rve., part, 
spectatus live., xi, 213. 
leai Pils., xi, 213. 
gracilis Lea. 

subventricosus DaC., xiv, 156. 
exoticus DaC., xiv, 156. 
dacostae Sowb., xi, 214. 


D. murrinus Rve., xi, 214. D. muliebris Rve., xi, 216. 

v. phryne Pfr., xi, 215. D. pealianus Lea, xi, 217. 

v. convexus Pfr., xi, 215. D. inclinatus Pfr., xi, 221. 
D. antioquiensis Pfr., xj, 216. 

Group of D. expansus. Peru. 
D. expansus Pfr., xi, 223; xiv, D. bartletti H. Ad., xi, 224. 

155. D. nigrogularis Dohin, xi, 225. 

pu/chellus Sowb. D. puncticulatus Pfr., xi, 226. 

iodostomus Dev. & H. D. hamadryas Ph., xi, 226. 

v. perenensis DaC., xiv, 156. D. crichtoni Brod., xi, 226. 
v. aurisratti Ph., xi, 223. D. narcissus Alb., xi, 227. 

v. vanattai Pils., xi, 223. D. excoriatus Pfr., xi, 227. 

v. scitus H. Ad., xi, 224. 
v. subprotractus Pils., xiv, 155. 
v. protractus Pfr., xi, 224. 

Group of D. strigatits. Peru, Ecuador, Brazil. 
D. strigatus Sowb., xi, 228; xiv, D. melanoscolops Dhn., xi, 231. 
158. D. rectilinearis Pfr., xi, 232; 

musivus Pfr. musicus Paetel. xiv, 158. 

f. purus Pils., saccatus Pfr., D. gueinzii Pfr., xi, 233. 
delphinae, cecilia3 Moric., D. similaris Moric., xi, 233. 
marieanus Pils. (maricz D. fucatus Rve., xi, 234. 
Moric.) D. aestivus Pfr., xi, 234. 

D. arcuatostriatus Pfr., xi, 230. D. geometricus Pfr., xi, 235. 

strigatus Rve. D. clarus Pfr., xi, 235. 

D. tigrinus DaC., xi, 231. D. bucia " Behn " Pfr., xi, 235. 

Group of D. orobsenus. Bolivia, Peru. 

D. orobsenus Orb., xi, 236. D. membranaceus Ph., xi, 237. 

D. cuzcoensis Rve., xi, 236. D. prretextus Rve., xi, 238. 

D. cygneus Ph., xi, 237. 

Group of D. fallax. Colombia, Ecuador. (Semiclausan'a Pfr..) 
D. subsemiclausus Pet., xi, 238. D. abscissus Pfr., xi, 240. 
D. rabuti Jouss., xi, 239. D. bourcieri Pfr., xi, 241. 

D. fallax Pfr., xi, 239. 
lautus Gld. 


Group of D. koppeli. Bogota. 
D. koppeli Sowb. xi, 242. 

Group of D. bivittalus. Ecuador. 

D. bivittatus Sowb., xi, 242. D. quadrifasciatus Aug., xi, 243. 

v. flexilabris Pf'r., xi, 243. D. napo Ang., xi, 244. 

Group of D. bolivianus. Peru to Colombia. 

D. bolivianus Pfr., ix, 244. D. smithii DaC., xi, 247. 

D. subinterruptus Pfr., ix, 244. D. caucaensis DaC., xi, 247. 
D. liEtus live., ix, 245. D. blandi Pils., xi, 248. 

D. trivittatus Mss., ix, 245. D. malleatus DaC., xi, 249. 

D. tribalteatus Rve., ix, 246. 
D. studeri Pfr., ix, 246. 
v. primula Rve., ix, 247. 

Group of D. papyraceus. Brazil (Mormus Alb.). 

D. papyraceus Mawe, xi, 250. D. magus Wagn., xi, 253. 

lita Fer.; lituratus Spix. inftatus Spix. 

v. papyrifactus Pils., xi, 252. D. dutaillyi Pfr., xiv, 158. 

? latior Martens. D. henseli Mart., xi, 254. 

D. polygrammus Moric., xi, 252. D. acervatus Pfr., xi, 255. 
D. cuticula Pfr., xi, 253. /. balteatus Pils. 

f. paucipunctus Pils. 

Group of D. glaucostomus. Venezuela. 
D. glaucostomus Alb., xi, 256. 

Group of D. trigonostonms. Venezuela. 
D. trigonostomus Jon., ix, 256. D. trigonostomus. 

curianianus Rve. v. correctus Pfr., xi, 258. 

knorri Pfr. D. auris Pfr.. xi, 259. 

Group of D. chanchamayensis. Colombia to Peru. 

D. chanchamayensis Hid.,xi,259. D. ptilcherrimus H. Ad., xi, 260. 
canaUculatus var., Pfr. D. chimborasensis Rve., xi, 261. 

D. fabrefactus Rve., xi, 260. D. decoratus Lea, xi, 261. 

D. plicatoliratus DaC., xi, 260. v. goniobasis Pils., xi, 262. 



Group of D. nystianus. Ecuador, Peru, etc. 

D. nystianus Pfr., xi, 262. 

v. nigricans Cousin, xi, 263. 
D. canaliculatus Pfr., xi, 263. 
D. ambustus Rve., xi, 264. 

v. chamaeleon Pfr., xi, 264. 
D. loxensis Pfr., xi, 265. 

Group of D.farrisi. 
D. chrysomelas Mart., xi, 267. 

f. raristriga, crebristriga Mts. 
D. farrisi Pfr., xi, 268. 
D. vespertinus Pfr., xi, 269. 
D. rubrovariegatus Higg., xi, 270. 
D. loxanus Higg., xi, 270. 
D. scitulus Rve., xi, 271. 

v. citrinellus ' Ph." Pfr., xi, 


D. edmulleri Alb., xi, 272. 
D. trujillensis Ph., xi, 272. 
D. lamas Higg., xi, 272. 

Group of D. pascilus. 
D. coniformis Pfr., xi, 276. 
D. oreades Orb., xi, 277. 
D. pazianus Orb., xi, 277. 

v. pseudonyma Pils., xi, 278. 

montagnei Rve. 
D. rocayanus Orb., xi, 321. 
D.torallyi Orb., xi, 278. 

ventricosus Par. 

draparnaudi Pfr. 
D. borellii Anc., xi, 279. 
D. montagnei Orb., xi, 280. 

castrensis Pfr. 

D. stigmaticus Ph., xi, 281. 
D. miliaris, Ph., xi, 281. 
D. clathratus Pfr., xi, 281. 
D. confusus Rve., xi, 282. 

D. cactivorus Brod., xi, 265. 

nitidus Brod. 

nitidulus Beck. 

occidentalis Mill. 
D. decoloratus Sowb., xi, 266. 
D. visendus Hid., xi, 267. 

Peru and Ecuador. 
D. sachsei Alb., xi, 273. 

catamayensis Mill. 
D. leucomelas Alb., xi, 274. 
D. vexillum Wood, xi, 274; xiv, 

pulchellus Brod. 

v. varians Brod., xi, 274. 

v. rubellus Brod., xi, 275. 

v. tigris Brod., xi, 275. 

v. keppelli Pfr., xi, 296. 
D. buckleyi Sowb., xi, 276. 
D. lentiginosus Phil., xiv, 159. 

Argentina to Colombia. 
D. monachus Pfr., xi, 282. 
I), canarius Ph.' Pfr., xi, 282. 
D. morbidus Ph., xi, 283. 
D. chenui, Ph., xi, 283. 
D. subroseus Ph., xi, 284. 
D. nigroapicatus Pfr., xi, 284. 
D. alsophilus Ph., xi, 285. 
D. precilus Orb., xi, 285. 

prcecilus Anton. 

pictus Bonnet. 

icteric a Anc. 
D. serenus Ph., xi, 285. 
I), obliquestriatus DaC., xiv, 157. 
D. cylindricus DaC., xiv, 157. 
D. interpunctus Mart., xi, 287. 
D. subpellucidus Sm., xi, 288. 



D. flavidulus Sm., xi, 288. 
D.fuscobasis Sm. xi, 289. 
D. miltochrous Alb., xi, 290. 
D. vestalis Alb., xi, 290. 
D. anceps Alb., 290. 
D. hepaticus Alb., xi, 291. 
D. libertadensis Pils., xi, 291. 

taeniatus Phil. 
D. mexicanus Lam., xi, 291. 

vittata Humb. 

hurnboldtii Rve. 

v. primularis Rve., xi, 292. 

D. serotinus Morel., xi, 293. 
D. longinquus Morel., xi, 293. 
D. virgultorum Morel., x, 168; 

xi, 294. 

D. dendritis Morel., x, 18G. 
D. bicolor Sowb., xi, 295. 
D. paeteli Alb., xi, 295. 
D. cerussatus Rve., xi, 296. 
D. annulatus Rve., xi, 296. 
boUvianus Rve. 

Group of D. depictus. Colombia, Venezuela and Guiana. 
D. semimaculatus Pils., xi, 297 ; D. deshayesi Pfr., xi, 303. 

xiv, 159. 
maculatus Lea. 
D. gereti Anc., xiv 


D. semifasciaius Mss., xi, 298. 
D. depictus Rve., xi, 299. 

v. ictericus Mts., xi, 299. 

v. pervariabilis Pfr., xi, 300. 
D. granadensis Pfr., xi, 300. 
D. incarnatus Pfr., xi, 300. 
D. lividus Rve., xi, 301. 
D. pertristis Pils., xi, 301. 

tristis Pfr. 

D. sancteemarthae Pils., xiv, 161. 
D. roseatus Rve., xi, 301. 

v. montanus Pils., xiv, 161. 
D. lacteus Lea, xi, 302. 
D. meridanus Pfr., xi, 303. 

D. dubius Pfr., xi, 303. 
D. effeminatus Rve., xi, 304. 
D. manupictus Rve., xi, 304. 
D. fresnoensis Pils., xi, 304. 
D. virgo Lea, xi, 305. 

gruneri Pfr. 

D. demerarensis Pfr., xi, 306. 
D. demotus Rve., xi, 306. 

feriatus Rve. 
D. nigrofasciatus Pfr., xi, 307. 

v. elongatulus Pils., xi, 307. 
D. funeralis Brug., xiv, 160. 
D. amoenus Pfr., xi, 308. 
D. fidustus Rve., xi, 308. 
D. rufolineatus Drou., xi, 308. 
D.succinea Pils., xiv, 160. 

Group of D. virginalis. Colombia, Venezuela. 

D. Virginalis Pfr., xi, 309. 
D. electrum Rve., xi, 310. 
D. tenuilabris Pfr., xi, 310. 
D. flavidus Mke., xi, 310. 
D. debilis Beck, xi x 311. 

D. columbianus Lea, xi, 312. 
D. venezuelensis Mart, xi, 312. 
membranaceus Rve. & Mart. 
D. gratus Pfr., xi, 313. 
D. amandus Pfr., xi, 313. 



D. dormani W. G. B., xii, 2. 

v. albidus Wright, xii, 3. 

subfasciatus Ckll. 
D. dominicus Rve., xii, 3. 

marielinus Poey. 

ftoridanus Pf'r. 

hemphilli Wright. 
D. hjalmarsoni Pfr., xii, 7. 
D. moussoni Pfr., xii, 8. 
D. bahainensis Pfr., xii, 8. 
D. erubescens Pfr., xii, 9. 

rufescens Gray. 
D. immaculatus 4 Ad.' Rve., xii, 


D. liliaceus Fer., xii, 10. 
D. sallei Pils., xii, \\. 

stramineus auct. 

v. haitensis Pils., xii, 12. 

bahamensia auct. 
D. virginalis Pfr. 

v. dominicanus Pils., xii, 12. 
D. stramineus Gldg., xii, 13. 

lucidus Rve. 

v. fasciatus Sm., xii, 14. 
D. multifasciatus Lam., xii, 14. 

H. picturata Fer. 

v. albicans Maze, xii, 16. 

v. christopheri Pils., xii, 16. 
D. laticinctus Gupp., xii, 16. 
D. vincentinus Pfr., xii, 17. 

v. flavotinctus Pils., xii, 18. 

D. imperfectus Gupp., xii, 19. 

trinitarius Smith. 
D. aureolus Gupp., xii, 19. 
D. rawsoni Gupp., xii, 2t). 

rawsonis H. Ad. 
D. mossi Smith, xii, 21. 
D. binomiriis Smith, xii, 21. 

indistinctus Guppy. 

v. lascellesianus Sm., xii, 22. 
D. broadwayi Sm., xii, 22. 
D. undulatus Gldg., xii, 22. 

fluctuates Beck. 
D. elongatus Bolt., xii, 23, 

virgulata Fer. 

caribtzorum Lam. 

caraibcEorum Bk. 

f. ludovicus 'Rang* Pfr., xii, 

proteus Gldg., Swains. 
rubra Pfr., carnea Mch. 

f. anguillensis Pfr., xii, 26. 

f. apiculatus Gray, xii, 26. 
kdmmereri Morch. 

f. extinctus Pfr., xii, 26. 
D. multilineatus Say, xii, 27. 

sisaknsis Morel. 

venosus Rve. 

virgulatus A. Binney. 

f. menkei Grun., xii, 28. 

f. parvus Lea, xii, 29. 


Group of D.josephus. 

D. zhorquinensis Ang., xii, 31. D.josephus Ang., xii, 32 
pallidior Dall, part. /. maculosus Mart. 

f. con color Mart. 
zcledoni Dall. 

DKYM^GUS. Xlvii 

Group of D. serperastrum. 

P. dombeyanus Fer., xii, 33. D. lattrei Pfr., xii, 41. 

Lymncea rugosa Val. delattrei F. & C. 

f. alcantarae Bern. focillatus Rve. 

D. fenestratus Pfr., xii, 34. pazianus Tristr. 

piescheli Mart. v. hiabundus Mart., xii, 42. 

D. lilacinus Rve., xii, 35. D. ehiapasensis Pfr., xii, 42. 

patricius Rve. chiapensis Mart. 

v. undulosus, unicolor, crossei, D. castus Pfr., xii, 43. 

jansoni, ictericus Mart. D. dunkeri Pfr., xii, 45 ; xiv, 162. 

D. serperastrum Say., xii, 37. v. forreri Mss., xii, 46. 

serperastrus Say. fenestratus Phil. 

liebmanni Pfr. fenestralis Alb. 

ziebmanni Rve. D. ehaperi C. & F., xii, 46. 

nitelinus Rve. D. colimensis Rolle, xii, 47; xiv, 

paivanus Pfr. 162. 
D. ziegleri Pfr., xii, 39. 

californicus Rve., xii, 40. 

Group of D. sulcosus. 

D. liotterii C. & F., xii, 47. D. jonasi Pfr., xii, 54. 

D. sulcosus Pfr., xii, 48. D. aurifluusPfr., xii, 55; xiv, 162. 

hyematus Rve. D. recluzianus Pfr., xii, 55. 

D. rudis Ant., xii, 49. D. lineolatus Conr., xii, 57. 

D. ghiesbreghti Pfr., xii, 50. D. lirinus Morel., xii, 57. 

v. stolli Mart. D. cucullus Morel., xii, 58. 

v. interstitialis Mart. v. gracilior F. & C. 

v. iodostylus Pfr. 
D. liegewischi Pfr., xii, 52 ; xiv, 

? nitidulus Bk. 

Group of D. attenuatus. 

D. fenestrellus Mart, xii, 58. D. trimarianus Mart., xii, 62. 

gealei H. Ad. D. hepatostomus Pfr., xii, 62. 

v. subunicolor Mart., xii, 59. D. costaricensis Pfr., xii, 63. 

D. attenuatus Pfr., xii, 60. navarrensis Angas. 

kefersteini Pfr. D. pluvialis Pfr., xii, 64. 

v. varicosus Pfr., xii, 61. D. bugabensis Mart., xii, 64. 

v. pittieri Mart., xii, 61. D. chiriquiensis DaC., xiv, 162. 


D. sargi C. & F., xii, 65. D. inglorius Rve., xii, 67. 

v. motaguoe Mart., xii, 65. v. heynemanni Pfr., xii, 68. 

D. droueti Pfr., xii, 65. 

v. sporlederi Pfr., xii, 66. 

Group of D. tripictas. 

D. irazuensis Aug., xii, 68. D. gabbi Ang., xii, 70. 

D. tripictus Alb., xii, 69. gabbianus W. G. B. 

rhodotrema Mart. angasi Mart. 

v. hoffmanni Mart., xii, 70. 

Group of D. totonacus. 

D. semimaculatus Pils., xii, 71. D. emeus Say, xii, 73. 
D. totonacus Streb., xii, 71. ziegleri Rve. 

D. dominicus Rve., xii, 72. palpaloensis Streb. 

D. albostriatus Streb., xii, 72. v. hypozonus, albivaricosus and 

D. championi Mart., xii, 73. membranaceus Mart. 

D. tryoni F. & C., xii, 75. 
mexicanus Rve. 
v. pochutlensis C. & F. 

Group of D. sulphureus. 
D. sulphureus Pfr., xii, 76; xiv, v. citronellus Ang., xii, 78. 

162. v. obesus Mart., xii, 78. 

sulfureus Mart. D. moricandi Pfr., xii, 78. 

Group of D. multiline atus. 

D. multilineatus Say, xii, 79, 27. D. uhdeanus Mart., xii, 83. 
D. moritinctus Mart., xii, 79. v. cuernavacensis C. & F. 

D. livescens Pfr., xii, 80. v. tepecensis Mart. 

D. discrepans Sowb., xii, 81. v. borealis Mart. 

D. semipellucidus Tristr., xii, 82. D. tropicalis Morel., xii, 85. 
D. heterogeneus Pfr , xii, 85. D. inusitatus Fult., xiv, 162. 

Group of D. alternans. 
D. alternans Bk., xii, 86. D. hondurasensis Pfr., xii, 88. 

vexillum Brod. honduratianus Tristr. 

v. juquilensis Mart., xii, 88. honduranus Mart. 

D, tricingulatus Ant., xii, 88. D. translucens Brod., xii, 89. 
D. panamensis Brod., xii, 90. v. subfloccosus Pils., xii, 90. 


Section Stenostylus Pilsbry, 1898. Peru to Colombia. 
D. koclii Pfr., xi, 314. D. meleagris Pfr., xi, 315. 

D. guttula Pfr., xi, 314. D. colmeiroi Hid., xi, 316. 

D. goudoti Pet., xi, 314. D. tapadoides Ph., xi, 317. 

D. troscheli Phil., xi, 314. I), ignobilis Ph., xi, 317. 

D. nigrolimbatus Pfr., xi, 315. 

Submenus LEIOSTKACUS Alb., 1850. 
ALBLHS, Die Hel., 1850, p. 156. PILSBKY, Manual xii, p. 90. 

Perforate, ovate pyramidal shells with the brilliant and usually 
banded or streaked surface of Drymseus ; but the nepionic shell has 
extremely minute spiral striae and occasionally some slight vertical 

The jaw (of D. perlucidus} is like that of Drymam. The radula 
(pi. 58, fig. 78) has brace-shaped ( x -Y^-") transverse rows running 
forward from middle to margins, and with comparatively few teeth in 
a row, the formula of D. perlucidus being The centrals 
have a single rather wide cusp shorter than the basal-plate. The 
laterals have a very broad, rounded main cusp and a well developed 
ectocone. The main cusp becomes emarginate on the marginals, and 
finally bifid, and the ectocone also splits (pi. 58, fig. 76, D. perlucidus.) 
The mantle is green in this species. 

Leiostracus differs widely from Drymseus in its diverse, probably 
degenerate, apical sculpture, in the reduced number of teeth, and the 
entire, rounded cusps of the laterals. In all true Drymseus the lateral 
teeth are tricuspid. These differences will probably make it advis- 
able to raise tin- group to generic rank; but until the radula of the 
type species, D. vittatus, is examined, 1 prefer to treat it as a sub- 
genus of Drymceus ; the natural position of Leiostracus being between 
Drymceus and Zaplagius. The species are all Brazilian. 
D. vittatus Spix, xii, 91. D. vimineus Moric., xii, 95. 

ff. coxeirana Moric. D. manoeli Moric., xii, 96. 

H. caxoeirana Moric. coxiranus P. & M. 

B. candidns Gray. D. cinnamomeolineatus Moric., xii, 

B. omphalodes Mke. 97. 

D. obliquusRve., xii,93;xiv, 163. D. perlucidus Spix, xii, 98. 

jeffreysi Pfr. opalinus Sowb. 

D. clouei Pfr., xii, 94. H. angulosa Fer. 

D. onager Bk., xii, 94. 
zebra Spix. 
v. subtuszonata Pils., xii, 95. 


Genus BOTHRIEMBRYON Pilsbry, 1894. 

Manual XIII, p. 1. Liparus of authors, not of Albers or Olivier. 

The shell in this group is similar to that of Bulimulus. The soft 
anatomy is known by the work of Deshayes and Semper on B. melo, 
and of Hedley on B. mastersi, tasmanicus and spenceri. 

The triangular kidney is as short as the pericardium in B. melo. 
The genital system in all the species examined, shows a long, slender 
penis, corrugated inside and without papilla, tapering into an epi- 
phallus above, which receives the vas deferens midway and the 
retractor muscle at the apex (melo), or has a very delicate retractor 
attached to the membrane enveloping the vagina (spenceri), or is 
apparently without retractor, and ends in a long, coiled flagellum 
(tasmanicus). The oval spermatheca is upon a duct about as long 
as the oviduct, and attached to its enveloping membrane (pi. 51, 
fig. 20, B. melo, after Semper). 

The jaw is thin and delicate, composed of 11 (melo), 15 (mastersi), 
16 (spenceri), 32 (tasmanicus) plaits, which denticulate the lower or 
both edges and converge obliquely, leaving a triangular plait in the 
middle (pi. 60, fig. 10, B. tasmanicus, after Hedley). 

The radula has teeth in B. melo, in B. 
mastersi, in B. spenceri, in B tasmanicus. 
The teeth have squarish basal plates and pointed cusps of the 
ordinary Helicid form, the centrals with the mesocone shorter than 
or about as long as the basal plate below it, ectocones small (melo, 
spenceri), or wanting (mastersi, tasmanicus). The lateral teeth have 
longer mesocones and distinct ectocones. The marginals have the 
mesocone or both mesocone and ectocone split in some species, while 
in spenceri they remain simple, and " to the remotest marginals the 
mesocone dominates the ectocone." 

Notwithstanding its isolation, this genus differs from South Amer- 
ican Bulimulinse in minor characters only, so far as we now know. 
The radula is of undifferentiated type, like that of Bulimulus, but the 
jaw has converging plaits as in Drymceus Placostylus,etc.,ai\d unlike 
Bulimulus. The genital system is identical with that of Bulimulus 
and Drymseus in B. melo, and also in the other species examined, ex- 
cept for the somewhat conflicting statements regarding the apex of 
the penis and its retractor muscle, which call for re-examination. 
The kidney is strictly Bulimuline, according to Semper ; but the 
ancient and probably not very exact figure in the Regne Animal 


shows a pallial system somewhat unlike known American Bull mull, in 
the partial rotation of the pericardium and kidney. A tendency 
toward that condition exists however in some forms of Drymseus. I 
regret that want of material prevents a new examination of the pallial 
organs and retractor muscles. 

Bothriembryon inhabits South Australia and Western Australia, 
with a single species in Tasmania. 

B. dux Pfr., xiii, 3. B. physodes Mke., xiii, 234. 

B. inflatus Lam., xiii, 3. physoidcs Reeve., xiii, 9. 

? costulata Fer. B. brazieri Ang., xiii, 10. 

me/ones Fer. v. humilis Pils., xiii, 10. 

ovum Dh. B. gratwicki Cox, xiii, IT. 

v. melo Q. G., xiii, 5. B. onslowi Cox, xiii, 11. 

v. castaneus Dh., xiii, 5. v. minor Pils., xiii, 12. 

v. maculiferus Pils., xiii, 5. hartogensis Kobelt, xiv, 166. 

v. conispira Pils., xiii, 5. B. leeuwinensis 8m., xiii, 13. 

B. rnartensi Kob., xiv, 166. B. indutus Mke., xiii, 13. 

B. spenceri Tate, xiii, 6. ? rhodostoma Gray. 

B. kingii Gray, xiii, 7. v. pallidus Tate, xiii. 15. 

trilineata Q. G. B. bulla Mke., xiii, 15. 

sayi Pfr. B. baconi Bens., xiii, 16. 

quoyi Cox. B. angasianus Pfr., xiii, 16. 

v. solidus Pils., xiii, 9. B. masters! Cox, xiii, 17. 

v. naturalistarum Kob., B. Sowb., xiii, 18. 

Conch. Cab., p. 781. tasmanicus Pfr. 

v. maxwelli 4 Braz./ Kob. v. brachysoma Pils., xiii, 19. 

Genus PLACOSTYLUS Beck, 1837. 

Manual XIII, p. 19. Type P.fbratus Marty n. 

Chiefly large shells, the ground living species brown, often thick 
and ponderous, the arboreal species thinner and frequently variegated 
with green or white. Nepionic whorls thimble-punctate when un- 
worn. Aperture and lip commonly orange-red. 

The kidney (in P. shongii, pi. 51, fig. 15) is short and triangular, 
as long as the pericardium, with closed ureter and gut-ureter. The 
heart lies obliquely to the long axis of the lung. The capacious pul- 
monary vein bears no large branches. The first branch of the 
pericardial vein arises close to its origin, and is almost as conspicuous 
as the pulmonary vein, from which it is separated by the very long 


first vein of the vena cava. The vena cava bears a second large 
vein which parts the two branches of the first branch of the peri- 
cardial vein. The general reticulation is faint, the veins mentioned 
having no large branches. 

The free retractor muscles (of P. shongii, pi. 54, fig. 41, nat. size) 
are arranged as in the American Bulimulidce. The right ocular 
retractor band arising from the face of the columellar mwscle. 

The genital system (pi. 51, fig. 23, P. shongn) is characterized by 
the very large size of the fleshy penis, at the distal end of which the 
short retractor muscle is inserted, its distal termination being on the 
lung floor. There is no internal papilla, but the walls are corrugated 
above (fig. 24), and bear a pilaster below (fig. 25). The vas 
deferens is imbedded in the superficial integument of the penis nearly 
to the base of the latter. The vagina is moderately long. The duct 
of the spermatheca is short, the uterus being fully double its length. 
A muscle binds the spermatheca to the oviduct. In P. elobatus (pi. 
51, fig. 22, after Semper) Semper found a similar system, except 
that the penis and spermatheca duct are much shorter. P. seemanni 
and P. fulguratus have similar genitalia, all three being Fijian 
species. In P. porphyrostomus Fischer found the genitalia about as 
in shongii, except that the vagina and spermatheca with its duct are 
shorter. In P. scarabus the penis is shorter (J. de C., 1871, pi. 7). 

The jaw is strongly arcuate, thick and brown, composed of many 
narrow plaits, converging toward the median line, the median plate 

The radula is of the normal Helicid type. The central teeth have 
a strong mesocone, and small ectocones or none. The laterals are 
similar, but asymmetrical without an entocone. They gradually 
change to marginals by splitting of the mesocone. The radula of 
P. shongii I examined has about 20 lateral teeth on each side, fol- 
lowed by about 10 well-developed marginals, bordered by perhaps a 
dozen or more small irregularly developed and probably functionless 
marginal teeth. Semper found 120 to 158 teeth in a row in the 
Fijian species (PI. 60, fig. 13, P. fulguratus, after Semper). There 
is a perceptible though not great difference in form between the 
marginal teeth of the Placostyles of Fiji and those of New Caledonia, 
Lord Howe Island and New Zealand. 

PlacostyJus is typically Bulimuline in nepionic sculpture, teeth, 
jaw, kidney and free muscles. It varies from most American genera 


in the shortening of tlie duct of the spermatheca, and the enlarge- 
ment and evident functional importance of the first branch of the 
pericardial vein. The latter is well developed, however, in the 
American genus Macrodontes. 

Section Placostylus s. str. 
(Species of New Zealand.) 

P. shongii Less., xiii, 22. v. novoseelandicusPfr.,xiii, 24. 

bovinus auct. neozealanictis Hutton. 

auris-bovina Petit. v. candidus Crosse, xiii, 25. 

lionyii Suter, xiii, 235. 

(Species of Lord Howe Island.) 

P. bivaricosus Gask., xiii, 25. v. etheridgei Braz., xiii, 26. 

v. cuniculinsuhe Cox, xiii, 26. v. solidus Eth., xiii, 27. 

(Species of New Caledonia and the Loyalty Is.) 

Group of P. bavayi. 

P. eddystonensis Plr., xiii, 30. P. curtus Cr., xiii, 33. 
hienguenensis Crosse. layardi Kob. 

servaini Euthyme. P. savesi Cr., xiii, 33. 

P. bavayi C. & M., xiii, 31. P. rossiteri Braz., xiii, 34. 

v. dupuyi Kob., xiii, 31. 
P. bondeensis C. & S., xiii, 32. 
v. edentulus C. & S., xiii, 32. 

Group of P. fibratus. 

P. alexander Cr., xiii, 35. P. fibratus Martyn, xiii, 39, 235. 

v. procerula, ouagapensis, B. alboroseus, bulbulus, car- 

crassus, leucostoma, nigri- bonarius, necouemis, in- 

cans Crosse, xiii, 36; 1undibu1um,superfasciatus, 

patulus Kob., xiii, 236. patens, of Gassies ; B. f. 

P. corpulentus Gass., xiii, 37. pallidula Crosse; Valuta 

P. abbreviatus Gass., xiii, 37. austraiis Dillw.; H. auris- 

P. kanalensis Cr., xiii, 38. bovinus Ker.; Auricula 

v. tchioensis Kob.. xiii, 38. aurantiaca Schuin.; B. 

thioensis Cr. bootis Mke. 

v. subeffusus Kob., xiii, 39. v. pinicola Gass., xiii, 42. 


v. bovinus Brug., xiii, 42. P. falcicula Gass., xiii, 46. 

v. bairdii Rve., xiii, 42. P. ouveanus' Dotz,' Mss., xiii, 47, 

v. peculiaris Kob., xiii, 42. sinistrorsus and scalaris Crosse, 

v. leucolenus Cr., xiii, 42. aesopeus Gass. 

v. danieli Cr., xiii, 43. v. lif'ouanus Cr., xiii, 48. 

v. knoblauchi Kob., xiii, 43. v. albus Cr., xiii, 48. 

v. insignis Pet., xiii, 43. P. souvillei Morel,, xiii, 48. 

v. ouensis Gass., xiii, 43. eximeus Alb. 

v. imbricatus Gass., xiii, 44. P. lamberti Gass., xiii, 49. 

v. lalannei Gass., xiii, 44. P. boulariensis Sowb,, xiii, 50. 

v. grammicus Cr., xiii, 44. P. guestieri Gass,, xiii, 51. 

v. crassus 4 Lay.' Kob., xiii, 45. v. galopensis Cr., xiii, 51. 

aurismidse Rve. v. confusus Pils., xiii, 52. 

v. ventricosus Kob., xiii, 45. cicatricosus Kob. 

v. ovalis Kob., xiii, 45. v. orientalis Kob,, xiii, 52. 

v. ovata Cr., xiii, 45. v. rhinocheti Kob,, xiii, 52, 

v. edwardsianus Gass., xiii, 45. P. senilis Gass., xiii, 53. 
v. strigatus Pils., xiii, 46. v. minor Kob., xiii, 53. 

v. mareanus Cr., xiii, 46. v. subsenilis Gass., xiii, 53. 

turrita Kob. P. buccalis Gass,, xiii, 53. 

gareana Pfr.-Cless. P. goroensis Souv,, xiii, 54. 
P. arenosus Gass., xiii, 46. 

Group of P. porphyrostomus, 

P. submariei Souv., xiii, 55. P. poyensis Kob,, xiii, 61. 

v. abbreviata Souv. v. goyettensis Cr., xiii, 62. 

P. mariei C. & F., xiii, 55. P. pseudocaledonicus Montr., xiii, 

v. simplex Cr.; v. curtus, Gass. 62. 

P. neckliaiensis Kob., xiii, 56. Forms intermedius Cr., subu- 

P. porphyrostomus Pfr., xiii, 57. latus Cr. {mgra Gass.), 

lessoni Pet. dentatus Gass., palus Gass., 

auris-bovina Rve. rufus Gass,, incertus Cr., hy- 

v. singularis Morel., xiii, 58. bridus Kob., pouenanus Kob, 

v. debeauxi Gass., xiii, 58. v. chrysochilus Cr., xiii, 64. 

v. umbilicatus Kob., xiii, 236. gaudryamtsGass. 

P. monakensis Cr., xiii, 58. v. annibal Souv., xiii, 64. 

dautzenbergi Marie. v. saxtoni Kob., xiii, 65. 

P. duplex Gass., xiii, 59. P. scarabus Alb., xiii, 65. 

v. major Gass. v. tanouensis Cr., xiii, 66. 

P. caledonicus Pet., xiii, 60. v. smithii Kob., xiii, 66. 

v. edentulus Braz., xiii, 61. v s . goulvainensis Kob., xiii, 67, 


Species of the New Hebrides. 
P. salomonis Pfr., xiii, 69. P. heterostylus Pils., xiii, 72. 

P. fuligineus Pfr., xiii, 70. P. alienus Pils., xiii, 72. 

Species of New Guinea. 
P. remotus Hedley, xiii, 76. 


Species of the Solomon Is. 

Section Placocharis Pilsbry, 1900. 

Man. Conch., xiii, p. 21, 79. Type P. macgillivrayi. Solomon Is. 

Group of P. macgillivrayi. 

P. founaki H. & J., xiii, 79. P. calus Smith, xiii, 83. 

hombroni Cr. P. macgillivrayi Pfr., xiii, 84. 

v. paletuvianus Gass. P. palmarum Mss., xiii, 85. 
rhizophorarus, etc., Gass. v. minor Kob., xiii, 86. 

P. kreftii Cox., xiii, 81. P. strangei Pfr., xiii, 87. 

P. guppyi Sm., xiii, 82. P. stutchburyi Pfr., xiii, 88. 
P. niacfarlandi Braz., xiii, 83. v. mendanse Kob., xiii, 89. 

brodiei Braz. P. (?) coxi Pse., xiii, 90. 

Group of P. scotti. 

P. scotti Cox, xiii. 90. P. hargravesi Cox, xiii, 93. 

P. uliginosus Heimb. Kob., xiii, v. heimburgi Kob., xiii, 93, 

91. 236. 

T. hobsoni Cox, xiii, 237. 

Section Aspastus Albers, 1850. 

Man. Conch., xiii, p. 94. Type P. miltocheilus. Solomon Is. 
P. miltocheilus Rve., xiii, 94. v. albolabris Braz., xiii, 95, 

T. stramineus Braz., xiii, 95. 236. 

v. minor Braz., xiii, 95. P. sellersi Cox, xiii, 95. 

Section Eumecostylus Albers, 1860. 

Man. Conch., xiii, p. 96. Type P. cleryi. Solomon Is. 
P. cleryi Reel., xiii, 96, 236. P. sanchristovalensis Cox*, xiii, 97. 

Species of the Fiji Is. 
Section Euplacostylus Crosse, 1875. 
Man. Conch., xiii, p. 99. Type P. seemanni. Fiji Is. 
P. seemanni Dohrn, xiii, 100. P. koroensis Garr., xiii, 101. 
P. kantavuensis Cr., xiii, 101. 


Section Callistocharis Pilsbry, 1900. 

Man. Conch., xiii, pp. 21, 102. Type P. malleatus. Fiji Is. 

P. paeteli Kob., xiii, 102. P. ochrostoma Garr., xiii, ION. 

moussoni Graeffe. v. rambiensis Garr., xiii, 108. 

P. garretti Pils., xiii, 103. P. pt'eifferi Kob., xiii, 109. 
P. graeffei Cr., xiii, 104. elobatus var., Pfr. 

colubrinus Mouss. P. vitiensis Garr., xiii, 110. 

moussonii Graeffe. P. gracilis Brod., xiii, 110. 
P. hoyti Garr., xiii, 105. fulguratus Jay. 

P. elobatus Gld., xiii, 105. eximius Rve. 

colubrinus Pfr. v. rugatus Garr., xiii, 112. 

v. albino Pils,, xiii, 106. v. crassilabrum Garr., xiii, 112. 

P. guanensis Garr., xiii, 107. P. malleatus Jay, xiii, 112. 

gnauensis Schmeltz. P. morosus Gld., xiii, 113. 

Section Leucocharis Pilsbry, 1900. 

Man. Conch., xiii, pp. 21, 67. Type P. pancheri. Soft anatomy 
unknown. Distribution, New Caledonia and Loyalty Is. 
P. pancheri Cr., xiii, 67. P. loyaltyensis Souv., xiii, 68. 

v. Candida Cr., xiii, 68. P. porphyrochila D. & B.,xiv, 167. 

v. rubicunda Dautz. et Bern, 

Section Pcecilocharis Kobelt. 

Man. Conch., xiii, p. 73. Type P. hartmani. Distribution 
New Hebrides. 
P. hartmani Kob., xiii, 73. P. francoisi Mab., xiii, 74. 

rossiteri Hartm. P. turneri Pfr., xiii, 75. 

hartmanni Kob. P. hebridarum Mab., xiii, 75. 

P. bicolor Hartm., xiii, 74. 

Subgenus Diplomorpha Ancey, 1884. 

Man. Conch., xiii, p. 114. Type D. layardi. New Hebrides. 
P. layardi Braz., Hartm., xiii, 115. P. coxianus Pils., xiii, 118. 
P. brazieri Hartm., xiii, 116. coxi IJartm. 

P. peasei Cox, xiii, 117. P. ruga Hartm., xiii, 119. 

P. delatouri Hartm., xiii, 117. P. bernieri Hartm., xiii, 119. 



This vol., p. 24. As the anatomy of the genera of this group has 
been discussed in the present volume, and the species described, it 
would be superfluous to give a summary of them in this place. 

The less specialized forms of Odontostominse apparently had a 
wider geographic range in the past than any living genus of the 
sub-family. Hyperaulax, which is not greatly modified from Bull- 
mulusi occurred in the Floridian Oligocene at the, time when Florida 
was not connected with the North American continent, but had a 
purely Antillean snail-fauna. 
The genera are as follows: 

Genus MACRODONTES Swains., p. 29. 
Genus ANCTUS v. Mart., p. 36. 
Genus ODONTOSTOMUS Beck, pp. 38, 169. 
Section Moricandia Pils. & Van., p. 40. 
Section Bahiensis Jouss., p. 46. 
Section Cyclodontina Beck, p. 58. 
Section Odontostonms s. str., p. 62. 
Subgenus SCALARINELLA 'Doer.' Dohrn, p. 66. 
Subgenus SPIXIA Pils. & Van., p. 67. 
Subgenus PLAGIODONTES Doer., pp. 92, 171. 
Genus HYPERAULAX Pils., p. 102. 

Section Bonnanius Jouss., p. 103. 
Genus TOM1GERUS Spix, p. 105. 
Genus ANOSTOMA F. de Waldh., p. 109. 
Section Ringicella Gray, p. 114. 

Subfamily ORTHALICIN^E. 

PILSBRY, Manual, xii, p. 99. 

Shell imperforate with solid axis, varying from ovate to oblong- 
conic or pyramidal, the aperture ovate, toothless, columella simple 
and straight, or twisted or truncate below. Jaw composed of a 
small number (usually 14 to 20) of wide imbricating plaits. Teeth 
of the radula very numerous, part or all of them bearing broad 
gouge-shaped cusps. Cardiac side of the lung plain except near the 
pneumostome. Genitalia simple except for an appendix on the penis. 

A natural group of tropical American snails, chiefly arboreal, 


Bulimuline in their main features, but differing from the Bulimulinse 
in the wholly imperforate shell, the appendix of the penis, developed 
in no other group of Bulimvlidse, the few broad and strongly imbri- 
cating plaits of the jaw, and a special modification of the teeth. 

Synopsis of Genera. 

I. Early whorls pitted. 

a. Shell rather ^thin, capacious, with large, oblique aperture 
and simple, thin or somewhat thickened lip and columella, 
the former not expanded. Genus ORTHALICUS* 

a 1 . Shell solid, more lengthened, the aperture smaller, vertical 
or nearly so, the lips thick and blunt, or expanded or re- 
flexed ; columella usually with one or two folds. 

s. g. MetorthaUcus* 

II. Early whorls smooth, or with some radial wrinkles. 

a. Shell ovate-conic, usually with coloration of festooned 
dark stripes, and three equidistant bands. Aperture rather 
large, ovate and oblique, the lip simple and unexpanded, 
columella straight or somewhat convex, not truncate below, 
Vagina and spermatheca duct long. 


a 1 . Shell ovate-conic, solid, with ovate aperture, the lip re- 
flexed, expanded, or merely blunt and rather thick. Vagina 
and spematheca duct short. Genus PORPHYROBAPHE. 

a 2 . Shell oblong-conic, with simple, thin-edged, unexpanded 
lip, the columella usually truncate below, either concave, 
folded or straight above. Genus LIGUUS. 

b. Shell white or bright-colored, with rather small apex, 
Antillean. s. g. Liguus* 

b l . Shell dark colored, the columella concave above, ab- 
ruptly truncate at the base. Colombia. 

s. g. Hemibulimus* 

& 2 . Shell strong, the apex obtuse as though cut off, the 
columella bearing a callous fold above. Colors not 
vivid. South America. s. g. Corona. 

The genital system of the Orthalicinse (plate 55) is Bulimuline in 
its main features, and shows no important differences in the various 
genera. The atrium is very short. The penis bears an accessory 


gland or appendix, usually composed of several lobes in Oxystyla, 
Liguus, Porphyrobaphe and Metorth aliens, but reduced to an annular 
swelling in Orthalicus. The penis is continued in an epipliallus to 
which the retractor and vas deferens are attached distally. The 
vagina is quite long, except in Porphyrobaphe. The small globose 
or ovate spermatheca lies near the heart, its duct being very long 
except in Porphyrobaphe, where the duct is much shorter than the 

The kidney is small and triangular, as short as the pericardium, as 
in all Bulimulidai. The lung is much lengthened, with a large, 
straight pulmonary vein with only very small branches. The peri- 
cardial vein is small, and gives forward but one large branch. Only 
the first, or right main branch of the anterior vena cava is well de- 
veloped. The minor reticulation is confined to the intestinal side of 
the lung, and the anterior extreme of the opposite side, between the 
base of the first main branch of the vena cava and the end of the pul- 
monary vein ; the rest of the cardiac side being free from visible 
reticulation (pi. 53, fig. 34, Oxystyla undatajamaicemis). 

The free muscles resemble those of Bulimulus in general arrange- 
ment. The pharyngeal retractor unites at its proximal end with the 
left tentacular band, although both are free almost throughout. The 
pedal retractors are strongly developed, branching from both the right 
and left bands. The right tentacular retractor arises from the an- 
terior face of the columellar muscle (pi. 54, fig. 36, Oxystyla undata 
jamaicensis) . 

The jaw (pi. GO, figs. 17, 18), is composed of a solid basal 
layer upon which the wide, imbricating plates of the anterior face 
are superposed. These plates seem to be free at their outer edges, 
which converge below towards the median line, but they are covered 
by a transparent outer layer, which is more or less costate vertically 
in some forms. The edges of the ribs alone are visible, by trans- 
mitted light, as in pi. 60, figs. 17, 18. The central plate may be either 
triangular or irregularly pentagonal, with the point downward. 

The radula is very broad, with 170 to over 200 teeth in a trans- 
verse row, the rows widely V-shaped. The teeth have square basal 
plates, which in the median portion of the radula bear very broad, 
rounded or truncate cusps, longer than the basal plates and project- 
ing beyond it on the sides. This cusp is to be regarded as compound, 
being composed of completely concrescent ento- meso- and ecto-cones 


(pi. 56, fig. 58). Towards the sides a small ectocone gradually makes 
its appearance, becoming somewhat conspicuous on the outer mar- 
ginal teeth, and the entocone is usually indicated by a slight notch 
in the cusp (pi. 56, fig. 57, 53). 

This type of teeth resembles the Zaplagius type superficially, but 
differs fundamentally in that the ectocone is united with the meso- 
cone, while in Zaplagius it is always distinct. 

The broad, shovel-shaped type of cusp described above is some- 
times replaced on the median and a few adjacent lateral teeth by long, 
lanceolate cusps. This modification has been observed in Ijiguus 
virgineus, L. (Hemibulinius} maynificus, Orthalicus sultana and atra- 
mentarius, Oxystyla ferussaci and princeps, though some individuals 
of the latter have the normal type of teeth. In my opinion, these 
lanceolate teeth have been modified from the rounded type, second- 
arily assuming a pointed shape ; this view being based upon the gen- 
eral law of tooth-changes set forth in Vol. IX, p. xiii. The species 
of various genera possessing such teeth are unrelated, and have ac- 
quired them clearly by a parallel process. Jn Oxystyla princeps, as 
Strebel & Pfeffer have shown, the form of the cusps is not a constant 
specific character. The same is true of Liguus. 

Genus OXYSTYLA Schliiter, 1838. 

Vol. xii, p. 101. Synonyms are Zebra SHUTTL., 1H56, Ortalichus 
Martens, 1893, and Orthalicus of writers on North American species. 

While the other genera are restricted in distribution, Oxystyla ex- 
tends throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of both 
Americas, though in South America the species are more numerous 
and diversified. 

The kidney and lung (pi. 53, fig. 34, 0. undata jamaicemis}, re- 
tractor muscles (pi. 54, fig. 36, 0. u. jamaicensis} and jaw have 
been treated of under the subfamily head. The radula has about 
100.1.100 teeth in 0. u. jamaicensis (pi. 56, figs. 57, 58), the cusps 
being broad and rounded as usual. Most of the species investigated 
have similar teeth. In some forms of 0. princeps and 0. ferussaci 
(pi. 59, fig. 7, after Strebel) the middle and some adjacent lateral 
teeth have lanceolate cusps. When this is the case, the number of 
teeth so modified was found to be unequal on the two sides. 

The jaw (pi. 60, fig. 18, 0. longa) has been described above. The 
number of plaits varies in different species. 


The genitalia (pi. 55, fig. 42, 0. princeps, fig. 44, 0. u. jamaicensis ; 
fig. 46, 0. pulcheUus} are characterized hy the very long duct of the 
spermatheca, both penis and vagina being of moderate length. The 
penis always bears a small accessory gland or appendix, which is 
usually parted in two lobes, which are subdivided in some forms. 

Antillean Species, Trinidad to S. Florida. 

O. undata Brug., xii, 105. v. jamaicensis Pils., xii, 107. 

zebra auct. v. reses Say, xii, 109. 

A. undulata Gldg. v. floridensis Pils., xii, 110. 

Species of Mexico and Central America. 

O. princeps Brod., xii, 113. O. zonifera Streb., xii, 123. 

v. trifracta Pils. v. nobilis Rolle. xiv, 164. 

v. crossei Mart. O. livida Mart., xii, 124. 

v. fischeri Mart. O. maclunc Mart., xii, 125. 

v. elegans Rolle. xiv, 164. O. longa Pfr., xii, 126. 

Subsp. deceptor Pils., xii, 116. v. strebeli Pils., xii, 128. 
obductus auct. v. boucardi Pfr., xii, 128. 

O. livens Shutt., xii, 118. v. uhdeana Mart., xii, 129. 

O. ferussaci Mart., xii, 119. O. leucochilus F. & C., xii, 129. 

v. tricincta Mart., xii, 120. O. ponderosa Streb., xii, 130. 

O. melanocheilus Val., xii, 122. O. decolor Streb., xii, 131. 

South American Species. 

O. obducta Shutt., xii, 134. O. mars Pfr., xii, 143. 

O. pulchella Spix, xii, 135. O. varia Mart., xii, 144. 

v. prototypus Pils., xii, 137. B. phlogerus auct. 

0. maracaibensis Pfr., xii, 137 ; A. flogera P. & M. 

xiv, 1H4. O. phlogera Orb., xii, 145; xiv, 

/. imitator PiK, xii, 140. 165. 

v. subpulchella Pils., xii, 141. O. macandrewi Sowb., xii, 147. 

O. fulvescens Pfr., xii, 141. O. bensoni live., xii, 147. 
O. isabellina Mart., xii, 142. 
0. bifulgurata Rve., xii, 143. 

Z.fulyur Mill. 

Genus PORPHYROBAPHE Shuttl., 1845. 

Manual xii, p. 149. Shell resembling Oxystyla, but more solid, 
with the peristome thick and blunt or reflexed. The nepionic shell 
is smooth, not pitted. Type P. iostoma. 


Jaw (of P. iostoma, according to Fischer) composed of 19 plaits. 
Radula with 85.1.85 teeth, like those of Oxystyla. Genitalia (pi. 55, 
fig. 45, after Fischer) with the penis and vagina short, the gland or 
appendix of the penis large and lobed. The duct of the spermatheca 
is about half the length of the oviduct. 

This genus differs from Oxystyla chiefly in the shortness of the 
spermatheca duct and vagina, and the thick or blunt lip of the shell. 
Distribution, northwestern Peru to Colombia. 

Group of P. iostoma. 
P. iostoma Sowb., xii, 150. P. saturnus Pfr., xii, 153. 

phasianella Val. P. flori Jouss., xiv, 164. 

v. bilabratus Pi Is., xii, 152. saturanus and satuanus Pfr. 

P. integer Pfr., xii, 153. 

Group of P. irroratus. 
P. irroratus Rve., xii, 155. P. grevillei ' Sow.' Pfr., xii, 156. 

v. elongata Mill., xii, 156. P. iris Pfr., xii, 157. 

v. minor Mill., xii, 15G. wallisianus Mouss. 

P. subirroratus DaC. xiv, 163. 

Group of P. dennisoni. 

P. dennisoni Rve., xii, 158. ? P. victor Pfr., xii, 160. 

v. marmatensis Pils., xii, 159. 
v. obscurata Mss., xii, 159. 

Genus LIGUUS Montfort, 1810. 

Manual xii, p. 161. Long-conic, smooth shells, white, usually 
variegated in bands or streaks with pink, green or yellow, cuticle 
inconspicuous or absent ; outer lip simple, not expanded ; columella 
usually truncate below, sometimes continuous with the basal lip. 
The typical group inhabits the Greater Antilles, subgenera occurring 
in northern South America. The species so far as known are 

The mantle-edge (of L. fasciatus) bears two conspicuous flange- 
like lobes, one dorsal, the other along the left margin, and separated 
from the neck-lobe by a narrow notch. The kidney is short and 
triangular, with completely closed secondary ureter, as in Oxystyla. 
The reticulation of the lung is substantially as in Oxystyla, except 
that the first branch of the pericardial vein is longer, about as long 
as the pulmonary v^in. The venation of the cardiac side of the 
lung is weak and sparse. 


The genital system resembles that of Ojry&tyht, except that the 
appendix is decidedly larger, though of the same character. The 
penis retractor muscle is inserted on the floor of the lung. The duct 
of the spermatheca is as long as the oviduct. The right eye re- 
tractor passes between male and female branches of the genitalia. 

The jaw (pi. 60, fig. 17, L. fasciatus, Miami, Fla.) is similar to 
that of Oxystyla, composed of 16 plates, the median one small and 

The radula is very broad, as in other Orthalicince, with broadly 
V-shaped rows of teeth. The teeth are somewhat less numerous 
than in Oxystyla, L. fasciatus having from 76.1.76 in a specimen I 
counted, to 69.1.69 according to Binney. The same author found 
40.1.40 teeth in L. virgineus. The teeth are closely crowded near 
the middle of the radula (fig. 23), much more separated near the 
margins (fig. 23). The cusps of the central and first lateral teeth of 
L. fasciatus are elongate and pointed on the younger (posterior) end 
of the radula of a specimen from Miami, Fla. (pi. 61, fig. 22); over 
the median, functional portion of the radula the cusps are more ob- 
tuse and rbunded (pi. 61, fig. 23); and anteriorly still more so. The 
laterals become wider, with a much broader, obtuse cusp; the ecto- 
cone, at first indicated by a slight sinuation, gradually becoming sepa- 
rated from the mesocone on the outer portions of the radula (pi. 61, 
fig. 23, teeth 67-69). The entocone is likewise indicated by a more 
or less pronounced notch on the outer teeth. In a radula of the same 
species, from Cardenas, Cuba, the central and lateral teeth are more 
obtuse, and Binney so figures them. In L. virgineus the central and 
first two lateral teeth were found to have long and somewhat pointed 
cusps (pi. 56, fig. 56, after Binney, central with 5 adjacent laterals, 
and the 39th and 40th teeth). 

L. virgineus is from Haiti, the others from Cuba; fasciatus occur- 
ring also in southern Florida and Cozumel Island, off Yucatan. 

L. virgineus L., xii, 162. L. fasciatus Mull., xii, 166. 

A. Virginia Blv. B. vexillum Brug., A. pallida 

A. vexillum Humph. and crenata Swains., A. anais 

A. emarginata Swains. Less., A. lineata Val., A. 

Ch. vittata Humph. lutea Ant., A. murrea Rve., 

Helix regina Bowd., xiv, 165. A. picta Rve., H. hepatica 

L. poeyanus Pfr., xii, 166. Bolt., A. solida Say. 

L. blainianus Poey, xii, 174. 


Subgenus CORONA Albers, 1850. 

A Soutli American group of rather large, solid, lengthened spe- 
cies, either dextral or sinistral, the colunella more or less truncate' 
or excised at base, twisted and bearing a callous fold above. Soft 
anatomy unknown. Type L. regina, Fer. 

Corona is considered by Mr. E. A. Smith to be more nearly re- 
lated to the group of Metorihalicus atramerdarius than to Liguus. 
Of. Proc. Malac. Soc., v, p. 170. 

L. regina Fer., xii, 177. L. incisus Hupe, xii, 179. 

A. melastoma Swains. L. regalis Hupe, xii, 180. 

A. melanostoma Gray. regina auct. 

0. rex dextrorsus^Sk. v. loroisianus Hupe, xii, 183. 

L. perversus Swains., xii, 178. L. pfeifferi Hid., xii, 146. 

0. rex sinistrorsus Bk. v. gracilis E. A. Sm., 1902. 

Subgenus HEMIBULIMUS Martens, 1885. 

Fusiform, dark-colored, with obtuse apex, the first whorl finely 
wrinkled. Columellar margin concave, distinctly truncated at base. 
The jaw (pi. 56, fig. 50) is composed of 13 imbricating plates, the 
median one reaching the basal margin. Radula with 
teeth. The centrals are much lengthened, with a long, lanceolate 
mesocone and v estigeal side cusps. Two laterals on each side are simi- 
lar, but asymmetrical. The rest of the teeth are short and broad, 
with quadrate base, very wide, short cusps, and a minute ectocone. 
The outermost marginals become tricuspid (pi. 56, figs. 51, 52, 53). 

L. magnificus Pfr., xii, 185. Andes of Colombia. 

v. excisus Mart., xii, 185. 

Genus ORTHALICUS Beck, 1837. 

Man. Conch, xii, p. 186. Strebel & Pfeffer, Beitr. Mex. Land-'u. 
Siisswasser-Conchyl., Theil v, p. 2 (anatomy of 0. sultana). W. G. 
Binney, Ann. Lye. N. H. of N. Y. xi, p. 38 (anatomy). 

In 0. sultana from Guiana, Strebel found the right neck-lobe of 
the mantle strongly developed ; the left forms a continuous rim 
around the entire mantle. The genital system (pi. 55, fig. 43) has 
the general characters of other genera of the sub-family, except that 
the appendix of the penis is represented by a circular swelling. The 
latter was not noticed by Binney, who examined a specimen from 
Maranon, Peru. 


The jaw is composed of 15 plaits, the median ones not reaching 
the lower margin. The radula (pi. 56, tig. 55, 0. sultana from 
Maraiion, after Binney) has over 108.1.108 teeth. The central and 
inner three laterals on each side have rather narrow basal-plates, and 
long, lanceolate cusps. The rest of the teeth are wide, with broad, 
short, rounded cusps, as usual in the subfamily. 

O. sultana Dillw., xii, 188. O. meobambensis Pfr., xii, 191. 

ff. gallina sultana Chemn. O. trullisatus Sh., xii, 191. 
0. sultana Beck. 
A. pavonina Spix. 


The anatomy of 0. atramentarius has been examined by Strebel 
and Pfeffer. The lower portion of the penis is much swollen ; it 
bears a large appendix, which is slightly lobed distally (pi. 55, fig. 
48, 47, section of penis and appendix, f. 49, appendix). The median 
plaits of the jaw are markedly triangular. The radula (pi. 56, fig. 
54) has the central tooth, three laterals on one side and four on the 
other, of the narrow, lanceolate shape which occurs in 0. princeps, 
0. sultana, Liguus virgineus and magnificus ; the other teeth being 
of the usual broadly rounded form. 

Group of 0. fraseri. 

O. buckleyi Higg., xii, 193. O. galactostoma Anc., xii, 194. 

O. fraseri Pfr., xii, 193. O. augusti Jouss., xii, 195. 

v. brevispira Pils., xii, 194. 

Group of 0. deburghicB. 

O. deburghiae Rve., xii, 196. O. wrzesniowskii Lub., xii, 198. 

gloriosus Pfr. O. maranhonensis Alb., xii, 198. 

v. elongata Mill., xii, 198. 

Group of 0. labeo. 

O. labeo Brod., xii, 199. O. yatesi Pfr., xii, 202. 

O. vicarius Fult., xii, 200. v. sublabeo ' Dohrn ' Anc. 

labeo Rve. v. latevittata Shutt. 

O. shuttleworthi Alb., xii, 201. O. kelletti Rve, xii, 204. 

v. fungairinoi Hid., xii, 204. 
jatesi Hupe. 


Group of 0. atramentarius. 

O. powisianus Pet., xii, 206. O. atramentarius Pf'r., xii, 209. 
O. adamsoni Gray, xii, 207. boussingaultii Hupe. 

f. maculatus Pils., xii, 208. iodes Shuttl. 

O. approximatus Fult., xii, 209. 


Manual xii, p. 211. This group includes Bulimulidse in which the 
shell is more or less degenerate, Succinea-s\\&ped, Haliotis -shaped, or 
in the less modified forms, globose or ovate ; always thin and mainly 

The group is a provisional one in its present limits, and probably 
composed of two independent lines of specialization : one from the 
Drymceus, Zaplagius, Oxychona radical, leading to Simpulopsis and 
Peltella ; the other perhaps diverging from a Bulimulus-Yike stem, 
including Amphibulima with its satellite groups, and Gceotis. 

Genus SIMPULOPSIS Beck, 1837. 
Manual xii, p. 212. 

The jaw is unknown, but probably like that of Drymceus. The 
radula of S. sulculosa has V-shaped rows of 70 teeth each, obliquely 
running forward, as in Zaplagius and the Orthalicinse, The rhachi- 
dian tooth has a single conic cusp. The laterals have the mesocone 
much expanded, broad, ectocone small but well developed. The 
marginal teeth (fig. 12) resemble those of Drymceus and Peltella, 
having an oblique, trifid, broad cusp, the ectocone split (pi. 62, fig. 
34, S. sulculosa, after Heynemann). The soft anatomy is other- 
wise unknown. 

The species of the typical section are from Brazil, south of the 
Amazon, except corrugata from Trinidad and vincentina from St. 

S. atrovirens Moric., xii, 213. S. rufovirens Moric., xii, 216. 
S. sulculosa Fer., xii, 214. rufescens H. & A. Ad. 

membranacea Mich. S. corrugata Gupp., xii, 217. 

S. brasiliensis Moric., xii, 215. S. miersi Pfr., xii, 218. 

obtusa Pfr. S. tryoni Pils., xii, 218. 

S. obtusa Sowb., xii, 216. S. decussata Pfr., xii, 218. 

ovata Sowb. S. (?) vincentina Sm., xii, 219. 


Mexican Species. 
S. simula Morel., xii, 219. S. cumingi Pfr., xii, 220. 

Section BULIMULOPSIS Pils., 1899. 

Manual xii, p. 220. The soft anatomy of this group is unknown. 
T)pe S. pseudosuccinea. The species are Brazilian. 

S. pseudosuccinea Moric.,xii, 221. S. boissieri Moric., xii, 222. 

moricandi Pfr. S. progastor Orb., xii, 223. 

S. citrinovitrea Moric., xii, 221. 

B. vitrinoides Rve. 

Subgenus PLATYSUCCINEA Ancey, 1881. 

Manual xii, p. 223. S. senea is Mexican, the other species Antil- 

S. portoricensis Slmtt., xii, 224. S. dominicensis Pfr., xii, 225. 
S. psidii Mart., xii, 224. S. aenea Pfr., xii, 225. 

Genus PELTELLA Webb and Van Beneden, 1836. 
Manual, xii, p. 231. v. Ihering, Malak. Blatter (n. F.), viii, p. 57 

Slug-like, with the mantle large posterior, elevated, and perforate 
over a //a/iofts-shaped fragile shell, consisting of between \\ and 2 
whorls. The jaw is highly-arched, closely plaited, very narrow in 
the middie (pi. 62, fig. 36). The radula is large, with 93.1.93 teeth 
in nearly straight transverse rows. The basal plates of the teeth 
are rhombic. Median tooth unicuspid, laterals with three cusps, as 
in Drymaus (pi. 61, fig. 26). The genital system (pi. 62, fig. 37) 
resembles that of Bulimulus excep-t that the duct of the spermatheca is 
very short. The free retractor muscles are shortly united proximallyr 
The columellar muscle is apparently degenerate. An excellent ac- 
count of the anatomy has been given by Von Ihering, who first 
referred Peltella to the Bulinwlidtz. 

The genus is very distinct in many respects, and especially in the 
shortness of the duct of the spermatheca, the anal pouch, apparent 
absence of the columellar muscle, and of course the modifications con- 
sequent upon the reduction of the shell. The teeth of the radula 
seem to be almost identical in form with those of Drym&us. 

P. palliolum Fer., xii, 231. Brazil, near Rio de Janeiro. 


Genus AMPHIBULIMA Lamarck, 1805. 

Manual, xii, p. 232. Type A. patula Brug. Amphibulia RAFIN- 

ESQUE, Binney & Tryon edit., p. 17. 

Shell Succinea-shaped; 1 J apical whorls corrugated in the typical 
forms, smooth in s. g. Pellicula. 

In Amphibulima patula christopheri, the kidney (pi. 62, fig. 27, K) 
is longer than the pericardium, its apex covered with venous reticula- 
tion. The ureter and secondary ureter (fig. 27, Ur.) are closed. 
The reticulation of the lung is anterior and on the gut or intestinal 
side, but extends further on the cardiac side than in BidimuUna. 
The pulmonary vein seems to receive a large branch near its cardiac 
end. The reticulation spreads over the base of the pulmonary vein 
and the adjacent apex of the kidney. The greater part of the car- 
diac side of the lung is plain or weakly veined, as usual in the 

The retractor muscles are essentially Bulimuline. The pharyn- 
geal refractor spreads but is not split distally, at its insertion on the 
large buccal mass. At its base it is shortly united to the proximal 
end of the left ocular and pedal band. The right ocular band arises 
from the anterior surface of the broad columellar muscle, and retracts 
the eye through the branches of the genitalia. The connections of 
the muscles thus agree in all respects with Bulimulus, Placostylus, 
etc. (pi. 62, fig. 29). 

The genital system (pi. 62, fig. 28) shows a short and very wide 
vagina and penis, the vas deferens inserted near, the retractor mus- 
cle at, the distal end. The duct of the spermatheca is very long and 
slender, abruptly swollen at its base and bound to the oviduct 
throughout. The albumen gland is small, the ovisperm duct being 
knotted adjacent to it. The ovo-testis is a large, compact mass of 
long, dichotomose caeca. 

The jaw is horse-shoe-shaped, thin and flexible, composed of many 
(50-56) narrow plaits, the median ones not reaching the lower mar- 
gin in the specimen examined by me (pi. 62, fig. 30, A. patula var. 

The radula of a St. Kitts specimen (A* patula christopheri, pi. 60 r 
figs. 11, 12) is comparatively large, composed of about 160 teeth in 
a transverse row, the formula being, the 15th to 20th 
teeth on each side being transitional from laterals to the marginal 
type. The central row bears teeth with well expanded basal plates, 


broad, rounded mesocones, and well developed ectocones. The 
laterals are similar, but asymmetrical by suppression of the entocone, 
as usual (pi. 60, fig. 11). The ectocone gradually increases, until 
on the transition teeth (left side of fig. 11) it is not greatly smaller 
than the mesocone. The inner marginals (last tooth to the left in 
fig. 11) have two subequal cusps. The outer marginal teeth (fig. 12) 
have three or four slender denticles, on a long, curved basal-plate, 
which on the outermost teeth is indistinguishable from the basement 
membrane except near the cusps. 

Binney found substantially the same type of teeth in St. Kitts 
examples. Those from Dominica have a longer, pointed cusp on the 
central tooth, while Fischer found the cusps long and conic in the 
Guadalupe form, which with the same number of teeth in a trans- 
verse row has 20 laterals. The central teeth have no ectocones, 
according to Fischer. These divergencies indicate racial differenti- 
ation on the several islands, thus : 

a. Cusps of central and adjacent teeth pointed. A. patula and 
var. dominicensis. 

b. Cusps of central and adjacent teeth broadly rounded or trun- 
cate ; St. Kitts. Var. christopheri Pils.; pi. 60, f. 11, 12; pi, 62, 
f. 27-30. 

A. patula is from Guadalupe and Marie- Galante, with varieties in 
Dominica, St. Kitts and Saba ; A. tigrina is said to be from St. Vin- 
cent ; A. pardalina and A. browni from Dominica, and A. rawsonis 
from Montserrat. 

A. patula Brug., xii, 234. A. tigrina Les. xii, 237. 

cucullata Lam. A. pardalina Gupp., xii, 237. 

v. dominicensis Pils., xii, 237. A. browni Pils., xii, 238. 
v. christopheri Pils., above. A. rawsonis Bid., xii, 239. 

Subgenus RHODONYX Fischer, 1873. 

Shell immaculate, rose-tinted, *SWcc*ea-shaped. Jaw (pi. 62, fig. 
32) similar to that of Ampkibulima, having 60-63 plaits. Radula (pi. 
61, fig. 25, after Binney) with 47. 13. 1.13. 47 teeth. The central tooth 
is tricuspid, middle cusp very large and broad, emarginate or truncate 
at the apex, side cusps pointed. The latter and inner marginal teeth 
are similar but without the entocone. The outer marginal teeth have 
long, narrow basal plates., like those of Amphibulima, and tridentate 


cusp, the two outer denticles larger, as in Gdeotis. Genital system 
similar to that of Amphibulima. 

A. rubescens Dh. xii, 240. Martinique. 

Subgenus PELLICULA Fischer, 1856. 

Shell oval, *Swmwea-like, smooth, with extremely large aperture 
and small spire, composed of less than two whorls ; columella with a 
thin, blade-like appendage. Animal externally almost slug-like, the 
mantle reflexed over the shell (pi. 62, fig. 33, A. appendiculata, after 

The jaw resembles that of Amphibulima but has fewer plaits, 40 
in appendiculata, 23 in depressa. The radula of appendiculata has teeth. These centrals are tricuspids, the mesocone 
long and pointed ; laterals with broader, shorter, but still conic cusps 
(pi. 62, fig. 31, after Binney). The genital system (pi. 62, fig. 35, 
A. appendiculata, after Fischer) is almost exactly like that of Amphi- 
bulima patula. Both species are from Guadalupe. 

A. appendiculata Pfr., xii, 241. A. depressa Rang, xii, 242. 

Genus GDEOTIS Shuttleworth, 1854. 

Manual xii, p. 227. 

The jaw is extremely thin and delicate, with over 40 narrow 
plaits, as in Drymceus and Urocoptis, but with no triangular area in 
the middle (pi. 61, fig. 24, after Binney). 

The radula is composed of V-shaped rows of teeth (pi. 61, fig. 24). 
" Centrals with base of attachment very long, narrow, obtuse above, 
incurved at the sides, obtusely rounded and expanded at base [pos- 
terior end], near which is a short, gouge-shaped expanded cusp, 
whose lower edge has three bluntly rounded cutting points. Laterals 
same as centrals in shape, but a little longer, and asymmetrical from 
the disproportionate expansion of the cutting-point. Marginals same 
as laterals, but more slender, with more developed and graceful 
cutting-points, of which the median is pointed, often bifid. There is 
much variety in shape and denticulation of the cusps. The middle 
denticle is always the smallest" (Binney). 

The form of teeth shows a relationship to Amphibulima. All the 
species known are from Porto Rico. 

G. nigrolineata Shuttl., xii, 229. G. malleata Pils., xii, 230. 
G. flavolineata Shuttl., xii, 229. G. albopunctulata Shuttl., xii, 230. 


Draparnaudia gassiest. New name for Bulimus turgidulus Gassies 
(xiv, 16. 17), not B. turgidulus Desh. 1864. 

Draparnaudia swistrorsa Dh. xiv, 15. Bui. sinistrorus Dh. is 
preoccupied by B. sinistrorsus Serres. 

Helicostyla fasciata Pils. This name will replace that of Bulimus 
eff'tisus Pfr., viii, p. 31, not B. effusus Bruguiere. 

Strophochcilus mar ten si anus. New name for Bulimus grandis 
Martens (x, 26), not B. grandis Deshayes. 

Bulimidus nanus Rve., x, 141. The name is preoccupied by 

Bulimulus terebrolis Pfr. x, 142, not of Bruguiere, will become 
Bulimulus ischnus Pils. 

Bothriembryon inflatus Lam. xiii, p. 3. Name preoccupied by 
Bulimus inflatus Olivier, Voy. Emp. Oth., T, 417. It has been 
called B. ovum by Gistel and others. 

Drymceus conus Pils. New name for B. coniformis Pfr. xi, 276, 
not of Bruguiere. 

Vol. XIV, p. 105, lines 3 and 4 from top, for " Bounanni " read 

( Ixxi ) 


NOTE. Names of additional species originally described as Bulimus, 
will be found in the indices to Achatinidce and Sulimmus. 

Names of genera and other groups are printed in SMALL CAPITALS; of 
synonyms in Italic. Numbers in black refer to the pages of the present 

aethiops Morel. = Limicolaria. 
aevolongus Boub. = longasvus Serr. 
affinis Brod. x, 177. 26 

affuvelensis Orb. = Glaudina af., 

abbreviate Gass. xiii, 58. 
abbreviate/, Souv. xiii, 55. 
abbieviatus Coop, xl, 153. 
abbreviatus Gass (Plac.), xiii, 37 
abscissus Pfr. xi, 240. 
abyssorum Orb. xi, 192; xiv, 154 
acalles Pfr. x, 160. 
acceleram Mart, x, 22. 
acervatus Pfr. xi, 255. 
achalanus Doer, xiv, 7*. 
achutellinus Fbs. xi, 99. 
achatinellinus Pfr. xi, 99. 
achatinellus Ads. xi. 99. 
achatinus Brug. = Achatina. 
achilles Pfr. x, 51. 
acholus Mab. xi, 143. 
acicula Brug. = Csecilioides. 
acicularis Lam. 1804. 
aconjigastanus Doer, xiv, 76. 
acquensis Math. = Glandiua. 
acromelas Morel, x, 144. 
acuminatus Pfr. viii, 28. 
acuticostatus Orb. = Melaniella 
acutus Brug. = Cochlicella. 
acutus Lch. xi, 38. 
acutus Reib. xi, 112. 
adamsoni Beck xii, 148. 
adamsoni Gray xii, 207. 
adamsi Rve. xiii, 221. 
adoptus Rve. x, 43. 
aegle Brod. (Bulinus) viii, 40. 
aegotis Pfr. x, 113. 
aegotis Mke. x. 114. 
aeuea Pfr. xii, 225. 
aequatorianus ISm. xi, 220. 
ae.quatorius Pfr. xi, 30. 
aesopeus Gass. xiii, 48. 
aestivus Pfr. xi, 234. 


. 53 

. 41 





aguirrei Doer, xi, 320. 31 

alauda Hupe. xi, 23. 28 

alausiensis Cous. x, 180. 26 

alba Sm. x, 197 ; xiv, 123. 
alba Sowb. xi, 38. 
albf.rti Brod. (Bulinus) vii, 199. 
albicans Brod. x, 175. 26 

albicans Maze xii, 16. 46 

albicolor Morel, x, 148. 25 

albidozonulata Gass. xiv, 16. 
albidus Lam. 1804. 
albidus Tayl. xi, 134. 
albidus Wr. xii, 3. 46 

albino Pils. xiii, 106. 56 

albinus Grat. viii, 36. 
albizouatus Rve. xiv, 7. 
albobalteatus Dkr. Achatinidse. 
albocoerulescens Bav. xiii, 184. 
albofilosus Dohrn xiv, 50. 
albolabiatus Fult. (Amph.) xiii, 213. 
albolabiata Sm. (Stroph.) x, 197; 

xiv, 123. 

albolabiatus Sm. (Dry.) xi, 201. 
albolabris Braz. xiii, 95, 236. 
albopunctulata Sh. xii, 230. 
alboroseus Gass. xiii, 40. 
albostriatus Streb. xii, 72. 
albus Cr. (Plac.) xiii, 48. 
albus Sowb. x. 174. 
alcantarce Bern, xii, 33. 
aldunatea Hupe, xi, 8. 
alexander Cr. xiii, 35. 



28 I algirus Brug. = Olaudina. 

54 alienus Pils. xiii, 72. 

42 almeida Spix. x, 7; xiv, 117. 








alsophilus Ph. xi, 285. 44 

alta Dall xi, 149. 36 

alternans Bk. xii, 86. 48 

alternatus Fbs. xii, 87. 48 

alternatus Say xi, 132; xiv, 152. 35 
alticola Bttg. xiii, 147. 
altoperuvianus live, xi, 173. 37 
alutaceus Rve. x, 59. 21 

alvarezii Orb. xiv, 84. 
amabilis Rve. = Partula. 
amandus Pfr. xi, 313. 45 

amarnla Brug. = Melania. 
amastroides Anc. xi, 118. 34 

ambnstus Rve. xi, 264. 44 

americanus Heilpr. xiv, 103. 
amoenits Bonn, xi, 69. 
amoenus Pfr. xi, 308. 45 

AMPHIBULIMA Lam. xii, 232. 68 
AMPHIBULIMIN^E xii, 211. 66 

AMPHiDROMrs Alb. xiii. 127. 
ampullaceus Brug. = Ampullaria. 
ampullaioides MSH. x, 75. 
anachoreta Pfr. x. 139. 24 

anais Less, xii, 168, 171. 
Awatttoma auot. xiv, 109. 
anatinus Poir = Viviparus. 
anceps Alb. xi, 290. 45 

ANCTUS Alb. xiv, 36. 57 

<W<*y*Dall xi, 119. 
andai Jouss. xi, 212. 41 

andamanensis Mss. xiii, 168. 
andainanicus H. & T. xiii, 217. 
andicola Pfr. x, 166. 25 

andoicus Moiel. x, 147. 25 

angasianus Pfr. xiii, 16. 51 

angasi Mart, xii, 70. 48 

angiostomus Wagn. xiv, 36. 
angosturensis Grun. xi, 80. 
angrandi Morel, xi, 23. 28 

anguillensis Pfr. xii, 26. 46 

angularis Fer. xii, 226. 
angulatns Fult. (Amph.) xiii, 226. 
angulatus Wagu. xiv, 42. 
angulosa Fe"r. xii, 98. 49 

Angystoma Schum. xiv, 109. 
ann8B Mart. xiii. 203. 
annamiticus C. & F. xiii, 169. 
annibal Souv. xiii, 64. 54 

annulatus Rve. xi, 296. 45 

anomalus C. B. Ad. = Nothus 


AKOSTOMA F. de W. xiv, 109. 57 
Anthinus Alb. x, 96. 
anthisanensis I'fr. xi, 82. 28 

antideluvianus Poir. = Melanopsis. 
antiguensis Gldg. xi, 38. 
antioquiensis Pfr. xi, 216. 42 

antipodarum Gray xiii, 24. 
antipodum Sm. xiii, 24. 
antiqua Hump, (Lucerna) xiv. 115. ; 
antoni Pfr. = Tornatellina 
apertus Pfr. x, 168. 25 

apex Mss. = Opeas. 
apical us Beck. Ind p. 65. 
apicinus Mke. xiv, 171. 
apiculatus Gray xii, 26. 46 

aplomorphus Jon. viii, 12 
apodemetes Orb. x, 187. 26 

appendiculata Pfr. xii, 241. 70 

appressus Mss. xiii, 136. 
approximatus Dall. (Bui.) xiv, 150. 


appioximatus Fult. (Amph.) xii, 
2C8. 66 

appuni Dpr. x, 68. 17 

aquensis Math. = Glandina. 
aquilus Rve. xi, 17. 28 

arboriferus Pils. xi, 175; xiv. 153. 


arbustorum Phil, xi, 10. 
arcuatostriatus Pfr. xi, 230. 42 

arenosus Gass xiii, 46. 54 

areolatus Pfr. xiii, 198. 
argenteus Jouss. xiv, 128. 18 

argentinus Anc xiv, 147. 32 

aristaeus Cr. x, 88. 19 

aimatus Migh. = Auriculella. 
arrosus ' Brod ' Anton. Veiz. p. 

42 = erosus Brod. 
arrosus Sowb. x, 160. 
artemesia A net. xi, 152. 
-artemisia W. G. B. xi, 152. 36 

artensis Gass. = Opeas. 
articulatus Fult. (Amph.) xiii, 222. 
articulatus Lam. = Cochlicella. 
articulatus Turt. Macioceramus. 
ascend ens L'fr. x, 49. 21 

ascendens Poey = Opeas. 
ASPASTTJS Alb. xiii, 94. 55 

asperatus Alb. xi, 102. 33 

aspersus Grat. viii, 53. 
assumptionis Val. xiv, 172. 
assurgens Poey Opeas. 
astrapoides Jonas x, 40. 
atacamensis Pfr. x, 140. 24 

atahualpa Dhn. xi, 168. 37 

ATAXUS Alb. x, 130; xiv, 136. 24 
ater Rich. = Melania. 
atomata Gray xiii, 122 
atricallosus Gld. xiii, 165. 
atramentarius Pfr. xii, 209. 66 

atrovirens Moric. xii, 213. 66 

attenuatus Pfr. xii, 60. 
augusti Jouss. xii, 195. 65 



aulacostylus Pfr. x, 72. 17 

aurantiaca Schum. xiii. 41. 53 

aurantia Perry xiii, 24. 53 

auratus Pfr. = Neobeliscus. 
aurea Dillw. xiii, 148. 
aureocinctus Fult. xiii, 224. 
aureolus Gupp. xii, 19. 46 

aureonilens Mill, x, 91. 19 

aureus Maityn xiii. 160. 
auriflims Pfr. xii, 55 ; xiv, 162. 47 
aurisbomnus Per. xiii, 41. 53 

aurisbomna Pet. xiii. 23 53 

aurisbomna rive, xiii, 57. 54 

auriscaprinus Fer. x, 114. 
anriscervina Fer. xiv, 42. 
aurisfelis Brag. Auriculidai. 
aurisjudsB Brug. Auriculidse. 
aurisjuddB Meusch. (Bulla. ) xiv, 133. 


aurisleporis Brug. xi, 189. 39 

aurismalchi Brug. = Auricula. 
aurismalcJii Gm. xiii, 40. 
aurismidw live, xiii, 41. 54 

aurismuris Moiic. xi, 191. 39 

aurismuris Sliuttl. 1852 = Chilon- 


auris Pfr. xi, 259. 43 

aurisratti Ph. xi, 223. 42 

aurissciuri Gupp. x, 112; xiv. 132.J16 
aurissileni Born (Voluta) x, 65. 17 
aurissileni Gray, x, 114. 
AURIS Spix x. 95. 14 

aurisvirginis Dillw. x, 7. 
aurisvulpina = Chilouopsis. 
auritus Brag. = Melanida3. 
auritus Suwb. (Buliuus) x, 27; xiv, 

121. 5 

auritum Spix xi, 190. 
aurora Jay = Limicolaria. 
australis Bowd. (Partula) x, 7. 
australis Brug. = Partula. 
australis Dillw. xiii, 40. 53 

australis Mart, x, 35. 5 

auversiensis Dh. Eocene. 
avellana Beck xi, 112. 
avellana Brng. Amphibola. 
avellauedae Doer, xiv, 91. 
avenaceus Brug. = Pupa, 
azulensis Doer, xi, 319. 31 


bacillaris Mke. Syn. p. 128. 
bacillus Pfr. = Opeas. 
baconi Bs. xiii, 16. 51 

bacterionoidesSowb.=: Achatiuidae. 
badius Sowb. xi, 28. 28 

baeri Dautz. xiv, 13i. 24 

baezensis Hid xi, 219. 41 

bahamensis Bid. xii, 12. 
bahamensis Pfr. xii, 8. 46 

bahicola Morch xiv, 47. 
BAHIENSIS Jouss. xiv, 46. 57 

babiensis Moric. xiv, 47. 
baileyi Dall xi, 14.V 35 

bairdi Rve. xiii, 42. 54 

j balamndes Jonas viii, 44. 
balsanus Morel, x, 184. 26 

balteatus Gld. Achatinidse. 
bait ovica' Rve. xiv, 173. 
baranguillanus Pfr. xi, 208. 41 

barbadensis Pfr. xi, 48. 30 

baroni Fult. xi, 172. 37 

baroui Fult. (Xeno.) xiv, 134. 22 
bartletti H. Ad. xi, 224. 42 

latavice Grat. xiii, 233. 
bauri Dall xi, 118. 34 

bavayi C. & M. xiii, 31. 53 

beccarii T.-C. xiii, 140. 
BEDDOMKA Nev. xiv, 1. 
beddomei Braz. xiii, 121. 
begini Mori, xiii, 188. 
behrendti Pfr. xi, 52. 
belclieri Pfr. viii. 35. 
beldingi Coop, xi, 149. 36 

bellulus Jonas x, 66. 
bensoni Rve. xii, 147. 61 

berendti Pfr. xi, 52. 
bergii Doer, xiv, 87. 
bermudensis Prime 1859. 
bernardii Pfr. x, 105. 15 

bernieri Hartra. 56 

beyerleanus Hupe xi, 197. 41 

bicarinatus Brug. = Acbatina. 
bicoloratus Lea vii, 199. 
bicolor Hartra. (Plac.) xiii, 74. 55 
bicolor Sowb. xi, 295. 45 

bidens Brug. Clausilia. 
bidwilliCox xiii, 121. 
bifasciata Burr. (Oxycbona) xiv. 
154. 38 

bifasciatus Ph. x, 59. 
biformis Pfr. x, 151. 25 

bifulgurata Kve. xii, 143. 61 

bilabiata B. & S. x, 99. 15 

bilabratus Pils. xii, 152. 62 

bilineatus Sowb. x, 187. 26 

binneyanus Pfr. xi, 133. 
binneyanus Pfr. xi, 164. 37 

binominis Sm. xii, 21. 46 

bisculptus Pfr. x, 142. 24 

bisuturalis Pils. x, 112. 16 

bitaeniatus Nyst. x, 58 ; xiv, 127. 21 
bivaricosus Gask. xiii, 25. 53 




Umttatm Ph. x, 59. 
bivittatus Sowb. xi, 242. 43 

Uzonalis Anc. xi, 109. 
blainianus Poey xii, 174. 63 

blainvilleanus Pfr. x, 67. 17 

blaucbardianus Gass. Subulina. 
blandi Pils. xi, 248. 43 

BOCOTJRTIA Roch. xiv, 23. 
bogoteiisis Pfr. xi. 212. 
bohlsi Mart, xiv, 70. 
boholensis Brod. (Bulinus) viii, 26. 
boissieri Moric. xii, 222. 67 

loithyanus Ads. xi, 322. 
bolivarii Orb. xi, 193. 41 

bolivianus Bk. xii, 190. 
bolivianus Pfr. xi, 244. 43 

bolimanus Rve. xi, 297. 
bonaerensis Doer, xi, 319. 31 

bonarieusis Strob. xi, 68. 30 

bondeensis C. & S. xiii, 32. 53 

BONNANIUS Joues. xiv, 103. 57 

bonnanius Jouss. xiv, 104. 
bonneti ADC. J. de C., 1902. 
bootis Mke. xiii, 41. 53 

boreal is Mart, xii, 84. 48 

borellii Anc. xi, 279. 44 

borneensis Pils. xiii, 153. 
BOSTRYX Trosch. x, 13S. 

BOTHRIEMBRYON Pils. xiii, 1. 50 

botterii C. & F. xii, 47. 47 

boncardi Pfr. xii, 127. 61 

boularieusis Sowb. xiii, 50. 54 

bourcieri Pfr. xi, 241. 42 

boussmgaultii Hupe xii, 210. 66 
bouvieri Dautz. xiv, 45. 
boumeri Jouss. (Bonnanius) xiv, 104. 

bomnus Auct. xiii, 22. 
bovinus Brug. xiii, 42. 
brachyplax Pils. x, 118. 
brachysoma Pils. xiii, 19. 
Brachyspira Pfr. xii, 233. 
brachystoma Orb. xi, 193. 
brackebuscbii Doer, xiv, 99. 
brasiliensis Fe"r. xiv, 61. 
brasiliensis Moric. xii, 215. 
brazieri Ang. xiii, 10. 


brodiei Braz. xiii, 83. 55 

bronni Pfr. x, 28 ; xiv, 120. 5 

browni Ads. x, 28. 
brownii Pils. (Neopet.) xi, 179. 37 
browni Pils. (Amphib.) xii, 238. 69 

brazieri Hartm. (Diplo.) xiii, 116. 

callaoensis Pils. xi, 16. 
41xfealliostoma Dhn. x, 85. ' 

CALLISTOCHARIS Pils. xiii, 102. 

callosus Pfr. x, 178. 
66 callosus Phil, x, 177. 
51 calobaptus Jonas viii, 46. 

brephoides Orb. x, 57. 
brephos Bk. = Obeliscus. 
breviculus Pfr. viii, 46. 
breviculus Rve. viii, 33. 
brevis Jay. Cat. 1839, p. 55. 
brevispira Pils. xii, 194. 
bridges* Pfr. x, 35. 
broadwayi Sm. xii, 22. 
broderipii Sowb. xi, 4. 




bryanti Coop, xi, 157. 
buccalis Gass. xiii, 53. 
buccinalis Lam. 1804 = Rissoa. 
bucia Behn xi, 235. 
buckleyi Higg. xii, 193. 
buckleyi Sowb. (Dry.) xi, 276. 
buenavistensis Pils. xi, 59. 
bugabensis Mart, xii, 64. 
bulbulus Gass. xiii, 40. 
bulimea Spix (Columna) x, 55. 
bulimoides Pfr. (Succinea) x, 84. 


BULIMULOPSIS Pils. xii, 220. 

MULIMULUS Lch. x, 125. 

Bulimus Scop, x, 3. 

Bulinus Adans. x, 2. 

bulla Mke. xiii, 15. 

bullula ~Brod. (Bulinus) viii, 36. 

buschii Pfr. xi, 5. 

cacotycus Mab. xi, 150. 
cacticolus Rve. xi, 60, xiv, 144. 
cacti vorus Brod. xi, 265. 
cailliaudi Pet. viii, 54. 
caesar Pfr. viii, 16. 
calcadeusis Bedd. xiv, 9. 
calcareus Brug. Obeliscus. 
calchaquinus Doer, x, 151. 
caledonicus Pet. xiii, 60. 
californicm Rve. xii, 40. 
caliginosus Rve. xi. 33. 
calista Biod. viii, 24. 
calista Pils. xiii, 144. 

calus Pils. (Stroph.) xiv, 119. 
calus Sm. (Plac. ) xiii, 83. 
calvus Sowb. xi, 105. 
CALYCIA H. Ad. xiv, 20. 
Calypso Brod. viii, 25. 
camba Orb. x, 185. 
cambodiensis Morel, xiii. 178. 
cambojiensis Rve. xiii, 177. 
camelopardalis Brod. viii, 25. 
canaliculatus Pfr. xi, 263. 
canaliferus Reib. xi, 119. 













canarius Ph. xi, 282. 44 

candid issimus Nyst. xi, 131. 
Candidas Or. xiii, 25. 53 

candidus Gray xii, 92. 49 

canimarensispfr. = Maoroceramus. 
cantagallanus Rung x, 22; xiv, 122. 5 
cantatas Rve. xi, 205. 41 

canlraitiei Bk. Azeca. 
capillacens Pfr. x, 31. 5 

caprinus Bk. x, 114. 
caprella Gldg. x, (32. 
caprella Lm. (Auricula) x, 65. 
capueira Spix xiv, 37. 
caracasensis Rve. = Opeas. 
carbonarius Gass. xiii. 40. 53 

caraibceorum Bk, xii, 25. 
cardinalis Pfr. x, 77. 17 

cariba'orum Lam. xii, 25. 
carinatus Brug. Auculosa. 
carinatus Lea viii, 22. 
carinatus Perry = Cantliaridus. 
carinatus Pfr. xii, 162. 
carinatum Pfr. (Auost.) xiv, 115 
carnatis Perry xiv, 123. 
carnea Mcb. xii, 25. 
carneolus Grat. viii, 19. 
CARYODES Alb. xiii, 125. 
castaueofasciata Montr, xiv, 16. 
castaneus Dh. xiii, 5. 51 

castaneus Pfr. x, 8~>; xiv, 131. 18 
castelnaui Hupe x, 19. 
castelnaui Pfr. xi, 73. 31 

castrensis Pfr. xi, 280. 
castus Pfr. xii, 43 47 

cataraarcanus Pfr. xi, 170. 37 

catamayensis Mill, xi, 273. 
cathariuae Pfr. xiv, f>6. 
cathcartiae Rve. x. 82. 18 

catlowise Pfr. xi, 34 28 

caucaensis DaC. xi. 247. 43 

caxoeirana Moiic. xii. 92. 49 

cayanensis Bk. xii, 190. 
cecileae Mor. xi, 230. 42 

centralis Doer, x, 188. 26 

ceratacme Pfr. x, 150. 25 

cercicola Morel, x, 185. 26 

cereicola Morel, x, 184. 26 

cereus Rve. = Opeas. 
ceroplasta Pils. x, 159. 25 

cerussatus Rve. xi, 296. 45 

ceylauicus Pfr. xiv, 5. 
chacoensis Anc. xiv, 147. 32 

chamseleon Pfr. xi. 264. 44 

championi Mart. xii. 73. 48 

chanchamayensis Hid. xi, 259. 43 
champaquianus Doer, xiv, 80. 
chancaninus Doer, xiv, 86. 

chaperi C. & F. xii, 46. 47 

charpentieri Pfr. xiv, 76. 
chemnitzioidea Fbs. xi, 124. 34 
chenui P,r. xi, 283. 44 

chersina Humph, xii. 161. 
cttevrotin Chenu (Auricule) x, 66. 
chiapasensis Pfr. xii. 42. 47 

chiapensis Mart, xii, 43. 
cbilensis Less, xi, 8. 27 

chilensis Sowb. (Balinos) x, 34. 
chiliensis Less. (Acbatina) xi, 8. 
cbimborasensis Rve. xi, 261. 43 
cbiucbensis Coop, xi, 137. 35 

cliionostomus Mcb x, 25. 
chiriguanus Bk. xiv, 172. 
cbiriquiensis DaC. xiv, 162. 47 

chloris Mab. xiii, 179. 
cbloris Rve. xiii, 142. 
cJiristiani Bk. xiv, 172. 
cbristolianus Math., 1842 = Acha- 


chriftopheri Pile, xii, 16. 46 

christopheri Pils. (Amph.) xiv. 69 
chromatellus Morel. = Limicolaria. 
clnysalidiformis Sowb. viii, 52 
chrysalis Pfr. xii, 43. 29 

cbrysaloides Pils. xi, 87. 32 

chrysocbila Cr. xiii, 64. 54 

chrysomelas Mart, xi, 267. 44 

chrysostoma Mor. x, 103. 15 

chrysotrema Bk. xiv, '172. 
ciaranus Dohrn xiv, 49. 
cicatricosus Gass. xiii, 38. 
cicatricosus Kob. xiii, 52. 54 

ciliatus Gld. xi. 78. 31 

ciuctus Jay = Leucotaenius. 
cinereus Reib. xi, 112. 34 

cinereus Rve. x, 165. 
cinerosus Pfr. viii, 15. 
cinnamomeolineatus Moric. xii, 97. 


citharellus Lam. 1804, Auriculidse. 
citrinellus Ph. xi, 271. 44 

citrinovitrea Moiic. xii, 221. 67 
citrinus Sw. xiii, 151. 
citronellus Aug. xii, 78. 48 

clarus Pfr. xi, 235. 42 

clathratus Pfr. xi, 281. 44 

clausilioides Rve. x, 135. 
clausus Spix (Tomig.) xiv, 106. 
clausus Pils. xiii, 195. 
davits Ads. xi, 106. 
clavulus Lam. = Melania. 
cleryi Reel, xiii, 96, 236. 55 

Clessinia D<er. xiv, 66. 
clouei Pfr. xii, 94. 49 

coagulatus Rve. x, 161. 25 



coarctatus Pfr. xi, 195. 41 

coarctatus Rve. xi, 196. 
cocapatensis Pfr. x, 20. 5 

cocbinchinensis Ph. xiii, 177. 
coeruleus Pfr. xi, 180. 37 

cognatus Pils. xiv, 1 5. 41 

colimensis Rolle xii, 46; xiv. 162. 47 
colimerisig Rolle. (Oxybtyla) xii, 118. 
colmeiroi Hid. xi, 316. 49 

coloratus Nyst. x, 74; xiv, 129. 18 
colubrinus Pfr. xiii, 106. 56 

columba Brug. Achatinidae . 
columbianus Lea xi, 312. 45 

columellaris (Pupa) Mich.= Rillyia. 
columellaris Mlldflf. (Amph.) xiii, 


columellaris Rve. (Bui.) x, 136. 24 
columna Brug. = Columna. 
columna Pils. (Neopet.) xi, 180. 37 
columnaris Zeigl. = Subuliua. 
c rnes Pfr. xiii, 170. 
compactus Fult. xiv, 282. 
complauatus Rouss. 1849 =PetrsBiis. 
compressus Bk. xiv, 172. 
cominnus Fult. (Amph.) xiii, 226. 
concinnus Pfr. viii, 27. 
concolor Bk. xiv, 172. 
concolor Mart, xii, 32. 46 

confertus Pfr. = Nothus. 
confinis Rve. xi, 129. 
coufluens Pfr. xi, 208. 41 

confusus Pils. xiii, 52. 54 

confusus Rve. xi, 282. 44 

Coniclus^Mb. x, 6. 
conicus Brard. = Hydrobia acuta. 
coniformis Brug. = Melainpus. 
coniformis Pfr. xi, 276. 44, 71 

conispira Pils. xiii, 6. 51 

connectens Fult. (Ampb.) xiii, 227. 
connectens Mts. x, 14. 4 

conoideus Jan. = Cochlicella. 
conospirus Doer, x, 189. 26 

consimilis Rve. x,50. 
consobrinus Fult. xiii, 208. 
consolidatus Brug. = Melauiidse. 
conspersa P. & M. (Pupa) xiv, 68. 
conspersus Sowb. x, 160. 25 

constrictus Pfr. xi, 80. 32 

constrictus Rve. xi, 91. 
contortuplicatus Rve. x, 71. 4 

contractus Poey = Opeas. 
contraiius Mull, xiii, 210. 
contusus Rve. xiii, 168. 
cooulus Lam. 1804= Bythinia. 
conus Pils. (Dry.). 71 

convexus Pfr. xi, 215. 42 

convexus Wood. = Glandina. 

co,>].eii Dall xi. 139. 35 

C'-quimbeut-is Brod. xi, 10. 27 

coraeformis Pils. xiv, 142. 28 

coraformis Pils. xi, 15. 28 

cora Orb. xi. 166. 37 

cordilleraa Doer, xiv, 125. 5 
Cordillera Strob. x, 181. 
conlovanus Pfr. xiv, 66. 

coiiaceus Pfr. xi, 51; xiv, 143. 30 
coriieus Lea. xi, 59. 
corneus P. & M. xi, 65. 

corneus Sowb. xi, 54. 30 

CORONA Alb. xii, 175. 64 

coipulentus Gass. xiii, 37. 53 

correctus Pfr. xi, 258 43 

coirugata Guppy xii, 217. 66 
coirugatus Brug. Clausilia. 
corrugatus King xi, 7. 
corrugatus Wagu. x, 22. 

corticosus Sowb. x, 76. 17 

corumbaensis Pils. xi, 68. 31 
Corns Jouss. xiv, 120. 

corydou Or. x, 80. 17 
cosmandanus Cr. Paet. xiii, 234. 

cosmicus Mab. xi, 144. 35 

costaricensis Pfr. xii, 63. 47 
costatus Pfr. xiv, 54. 
costellatus Grat. = Alaba. 
costellatus Sowb. 1822 = Glandiua. 
costerii Eyd. viii, 44. 
costifer Sm. xiii, 176. 

costulata F6r. xiii, 4. 51 
oostulatus C. B. A. = Subulina. 

cotopaxiensis Rve. xi, 31. 28 

coturnix Sowb. xi, 3. 27 

cousini Jouss. xi, 33. 28 

couturesi Anc. xiv, 131. 18 

coxeirana Moric. xii, 92. 49 

coxiana Pils. xiii, 118. 56 

coxi H artm . xiii, 119. 56 

coxi Pse. xiii, 90. 55 
crassa Cr. xiii, 36. 

crassa Lay. xiii, 45. 54 

crassilabris Grt. xiu, 111. 56 

crassilabrum Grt. xiii, 112. 56 

crassus Alb. x, 30; xiv, 123. 5 
crassus Fult. (Ampb.) xiii, 212. 
credulatus Nev. xiv. 126. 
crenata Sw. xii, 168, 169, 171. 

crenellus Phil, x, 34. 5 

creuulatus Pfr. x, 33. 5 

crepundia Orb. xi, 90. 32 
crepundia Rve. xi, 92. 

cretaceus Pfr. xiv, 141. 28 

crichtoni Brod. xi, 226. 42 

crossei Mart, xii, 37. 47 

crossei Mart. (Oxy.) xii, 116. 61 


1 x x i x 

crossei Pfr. xiii, 182. 
crossei Pils. (Drap.) xiv, 17. 
cruentatus Mor. xiii, 187. 
CRYPTOSTRAKON W. G. B. xii, 232. 
crystalliuus Rve. xiv t 21. 
cucullata Lam. xii. 236. 
cucullus Morel, xii, 58. 47 

caernavaceusis C. & F. xii, 84. 48 
cnlmineus Orb. xi, 25. 28 

cumingii Pfr. (Simp.) xii, 220. 67 
cumiugi Pfr. viii, 89. 
cumingi Pfr. (Tomis:.) xiv, 108. 
cunotator Rve. vii, 203. 
cuniculinsulse Cox xiii, 26. 53 

curianianus Rve. xi, 257. 
curia Gass. xiii, 56. 54 

curtus Cr. xiii, 33. 53 

cu^lus Koch, x, 172. 
curtus Reib. xi, 119. 34 

c:ispidatiiH Morel, x, 137. 24 

cuticula Dhn. xi, 253. 43 

cutisulpius Anc. xiv, 147. 32 

cuyoensis Pfr. viii, 47. 
cuyoensis Rve. viii, 46. 
cuzcoensis Rve. xi, 236. 42 

cyathostomus Pfr. = Ennea. 
CYCLODONTINA Bk. xiv, 58. 
cyclostoma Lam. 1804. Eoc. 
oygneusPb. xi, 237. 42 

cylindraceus Brard. == Hydrobia. 
cylindraceus Calc. = Azeca. 
cylindricus Da C. xiv, 157. 44 

cylindricus Gray = Macroceramus. 
cyrtopleurus Plr. = Macroceramus. 
cytbarellus Lm. = Auiiculidee. 




dacostse Sowb. xi, 214. 

dacostiauus Pils. xi, 219. 

dactylus Brod. viii, 22. * 

daidaleus Dh. xiv, 97. 

daflaensis Nev. xiii, 190. 

dalmasi Dautz. xiv, 128. 

danieli Cr. xiii, 435. 

daphnis Pfr. vii, 202. 

darwini Pfr. xi, 115. 34 

dautzenbergianus Pils. xiv, 34. 

dauizenbergianus Kob. (Plac.) xiii, 


dautzenbergi Fult. xiii, 166. 
dauizenbergi Mar. xiii, 59. 54 

dealbatus Say xi. 128; xiv, 152. 35 
debeauxi Gass. xiii, 58. 54 

debilis Bk. xi, 311 ; xii, 13. 45 

deburghise Rve. xii, 196. 65 

decapitatus Spix = Stenogyra. 

>cr ].tor Pils. xii. 116. 61 

c( i| i us Coop, xi, 139, 35 

dtvol atus Brug. = Rumina. 
<U coloratus Sowb. xi, 266. 44 

decoratus F6r. viii, 10. 
decora tus Lea xi, 261. 43 

<lecorus Ant. *= Achatinella. 
decolor Strebel xii, 131. 61 

decolor T. C. xiii, 233. 
rlecussata Pfr. (Simp.) xii, 218. 66 
decussatus Lam. = Rissoa. 
decussatusRve. xi, 178; xiv, 154. 37 
degeneratus Pils. xiv, 35. 
delatouri Hartm. xiii, 117. 56 

delattrei F. & C. xii, 41. 
delicatulus Ph. x, 162. 25 

delpbinse Mor. xi, 229. 42 

delumbis Rve. xiv, 138. 26 

demerarensis Pfr. xi, 306. 45 

demotus Rve. xi, 306. 45 

denrlriiis Morel, x, 186. 
dendritoides Pils. x, 186. 
deneckei Ads. x, 156. 
denickei Gray x, 156. 
dennisoni Rve. xii, 158. 62 

dentalus Gass. xiii, 63. 54 

dentatus King xiv, 58. 
dentatus Wood xiv, 94. 
DENTAXIS Pils. 31 

dentaxis Pils. xiv, 143. 31 

denticulatus Oliv. = Clausilia. 
dentifer Mab. xi, 161. J6 

dentrita Mont, xi, 38. 
denlritis Morel, x, 186. 
depictus Rve. xi, 299. 45 

depressa Rang, xii, 242. 70 t 

depressum Lam. (Anost.) xiv, 112. 
depressum Sowb. (Anost.) xiv, 111. 
depstus Rve. x, 181 ; xiv, 136. 25 
derelictus Brod. x, 172. 26 

deshayesianum Fisch. (Anostoma) 

xiv. 111. 

deshayesii Pfr. xi, 303. 45 

deviaus Dhn. x, 170. 25 

demllei Hupe xi, 171 
dextra Mull, xiii, 147. 
dexter Dh. xiii, 151. 
diana Brod. viii, 24. 
dUphaous Gass. = Opeas. 
diaphanus Pfr. xi, 47. 30 

disrueti Mab. xi, 148. 36 

dilatatusPfr. vii, 193. 
dilatatus Rve. vii, 192. 
dillwyniana Pfr. x, 118. 16 

DIPLOMORPHA Anc. xiii, 114. 56 
discrepans Sowb. xii, 81. 48 

dismenicus Mab. xi, 162. 36 



distorta Brug. x, 109. 16 

doeringi Kob. xiv, 73. 

doeringiJob. xiv, 75. 

dohertyi Aldr. xiv. 11. 

dohrnianus Mts. x. 14. 4 

dolirni Pfr. xiii, 173. 

dolabratus Brug. = Pyramidella. 

doliarius DaC. xiv, 130. 18 


doliolum Brug. = Pupa, 
dombeianus Brug. = Chilina. 

dombeyanus Fe>. xii. 33. 47 

dominicanus Pils. xii, 12. 46 
dominicensis Pils. (Amphib.) xii, 

237. 69 

dominicensis Pfr. xii, 225. 67 

dominions live, xii, 3 72. 46, 48 

doibignyi Doer, xiv, 126. 5 

dormani W. G. B. xii, 2. 46 
DRAPARNATJDIA Montr, xiv, 12 
draparnaudi Pfr. xi, 279. 

droueti, Pfr. xii, 65. 48 
dry as Brod. (Bui inns) viii, 49. 

DRYM^EUS Alb. xi, 191. 39 
dubiosus Jay xiv, 41. 
dubius Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 229. 

dubius Pfr. xi, 3< 3. 45 
dufresnii Lch. (Gary odes) xiii, 125. 

dukinfieldi Melv. xiv. 146. 31 
dumonti Mch. = Helicostyla. 

duncauus Dal), xi, 114; xiv, 152. 34 

dunkeri Pfr. xii, 45; xiv, 162. 47 

duplex Gass. xiii, 59. 54 
duplocinctus Fult. xiii, 222. 

dupuyi Kob. xiii, 31. 53 

durangoanus Mts. xi, 127.' 35 

durfeldti Dohrn. x, 18. 5 

dnrus Spix xi, 87. 32 
dussumieri Rve. = Ennea. 

dutaillyi Pfr. xiv, 158. 43 

dux Pfr. xii, 3. 51 

dysoni Pfr. xi, 56 ; xiv, 144. 30 

eburneus Rve. \iii, 20. 

eddystonensis Pfr. xiii, 30. 53 

edentula C. & S. xiii, 32. 53 

edentula Braz. xiii, Bl. 54 

edmulleri Alb. xi, 272. 44 

edwardsianus Gass. xiii, 45. 54 

edwardsi Morel, xi, 27. 28 

effeminatus Rve. xi, 304. 45 
effusus Brug. = Ampullaria. 
effusus Pfr. viii, 31. 

eganus Pfr. xi, 64. 30 

eg'egia Jay (Pupa) x, 101. 15 

egregius Pfr. x, 123. 
elaeodes Pfr. x, 86. 18 

elatus Gld. xi, 141. 
elatus Ph. x, 150. 25 

electricus Rve. viii, 54. 
plectrum Rve. xi, 810. 45 

elegans Mss. xiii. 217. 
elegans Pfr. xi, 11. 27 

degans Rolle xii, 117; xiv. 164. 61 
elegans Serr. 1844= Glandina. 
elegantissimus Mss. xi, 211. 41 

ellipticus Sowb. = Rillya. 
elobatus Gld. xiii, H 5. 56 

elongata Mab. xiii, 179. 
elongata Mill, xii, 156. 62 

elongatulus Pils. xi, 307. 45 

elongatus Bolt, xii, 23. 46 

elongatus Kaiij. = Hydrobia. 
elongatus H. & J. xiii, 168. 
elongatus Orb. xiv, 140. 27 

elsteri DaC. xiv, 156. 41 

emaciatus Mart, xiii, 153. 
emaciatus Morel, x, 143. 24 

emarginata Sw. xii, 164. 63 

emeus Say xii, 73. 48 

enganoensis Fult. xiii, 157. 
entobaptus Dim. xiii, 145. 
eocaenicus Oppenb. 
episcopalis Pfr. x, 76. 17 

eques Pfr. xiii, 165. 
erectus Rve. xi, 60. 30 

eremothauraa Pils. x, 129. 23 

eros Ang. x, 74. 17 

erosus Brod. x, 160. 25 

erul escens Pfr. xii, 9. 46 

erubescent Sol. (Helix) x, 7. 
erubescens Sw. x, 122. 
erythrosoma Pils. (Stroph.) x. 10; 
xiv. 117. 4 

erythrostoma Mke. (Pupa) xiv, 31. 
erythrostomus Sowb. x, 173. 26 
eschariferus Sowb. xi, 108; xiv, 152. 


etheridgei Braz. xiii, 26. 53 

eudeli Anc. xiii, 199. 
Eudioptus Alb. xii, 220. 
eudioptus Pils. xi, 89. 32 

EUDOLICHOTIS Pils. x, 108. 16 

EUMECOSTYLDS Alb. xiii, 96. 55 
EUPLACOSTYLUS Cr. xiii, 99. 55 
euryomphala Jon. x, 116. 16 

eurystomus Ph. xi, 221. 41 

EURYTUS Alb. x, 62, 69. 17 

euryzonus Pfr. viii, 44. 
evanescens Brod. (Bulinus) viii, 20. 
everetti Fult. xiii, 229. 
everetti Sm. xiv, 22. 



eversus Mss. xi, 208. 
cxavatus Brug. = Acliatinida 1 . 

excelsus Gld. xi, 141. 35 

excisus Mart, xii, 185. 64 

excoiiatus Pfr. xi, 227. 42 
exesa P. & M (Clausilia) xiv, 57. 
cxrsus Spix xiv, 65. 

erilis Gmel. xi. 37. 28 

eximius Alb. xiii, 49. 54 
eximius Perry =rCanthari<ing. 

eximius live, xiii, 111. 56 

exornatus live, x, 171; xiv, 137. 32 

cxoticus DaC. xiv, 150. 41 

expansus Pfr. xi, 222; xiv. 155. 42 
extinctus Plr. xii, 2fi. 

eyriesi Dr. xi, 39. 29 

fabrefactus Kve. xi, 260. 43 

faleicula Gass. xiii, 46. 54 

falconer! live, xiii, 122. 
fallax Plr. xi,. 239. 42 

famatinns Doer, x, 152. 25 

fanneri Dall. xi, 114. 
Ian is! Pfi xi. 268. 44 

fasciata P. & M. (Pupa) xiv, 60, 61. 
fasciata Pils. (Hrlic.). 71 

fasciata Rocb. (Bocourtia) xiv, 24. 
fasciata Sar. (Arapbi ) xiii, 233. 
fasciata 8m. (Dry.) xii, 14. 46 

fasciata Spix xi, 187. 
fa.sciatus Anc. (Pseudopart) xiv, 11. 
fasciatus Dohrn (Macro.) xiv, 32. 
fasciatus Gupp. xii, 19. 46 

fasciatus Mts. xiii, 181. 
fasciatus Miill. (Lig.) xii, 166. 63 
fa.xtigiata Morel. ^Streptostele. 
faunus Brod. (Buliuus) viii, 2(j3. 
fayssianus Pet. x, 182. 26 

feisthameli Hupe. xi, 322. 
felix Pfr. xi, 211. 41 

fenestrnlis Alb. xii, 46. 
fenestrulus Auct. xii, 46. 
feuestratus Pfr. xii, 34. 47 

fenesnellus Mart,, xii, 58. 47 

feriatus Rve. xi, 203. 41 

fernigi-.ieus Rve. xi, 29. 28 

ferussaci Auct. xii, 138. 
ferussaci Mait. xii, 119. 61 

fibratus Gray xiii, 2'2. 53 

fibratus Mart, xiii. 35, 235. 53 

fictilis Brod. viii, 47. 
fidaensis Moric. xiv, 44. 
fidustus Rve. xi 3< 8. 45 

figulinus Bk. xiv, 172. 
'iilaris Pfr. xi, 316. 49 

filiola Pils. xi, 165. 37 

Jilocijictus Rolle. xiv, 127. 

filocinctus Reuss. xiv, 127. 

filozonatus Mss. xiii, 2 2. 

fischeri Mart, xii, 116. 61 

; flagellatus Pils. x, 166. 

Jiammeum Bolt. (Ellobium) x, 114. 

rlanimeuts Brug. = Acbatina. 

flammeus Mss. xiii, 155. 

flammulatus Mart, xiii, 217. 

flavescens F^r. xi, 311. 
Iflavescens King ( PHI tula) xi, 8. 

fiavidulus Sm. xi, 288. 45 

ilavidus Mke. xi, 31>. 45 

flavoliueata Sli. xii, 229. 70 

flavotinc us Pils. xii, 18. 46 

flavus Pfr. xiii, 197. 

flexilabris Pfr. xi, 243. 43 

flexuosus Pfr. xi, 2('9. 41 

floccosa Spix (Achatina) x, 93. 

floccosus Spix x. 92. 19 

floyera P. & M. xii, 144. 

floiesianns Fulr. xiii, 205. 

floridauus Coiir. xiv, 103. 
floridanus Pl'r. xii, 5. 46 

rloridensis Pils. xii, 110. 61 

Hori Jouss. xiv, 164. 62 

fluctuates Bk. xii, 23. 
focillatus Rve. xii, 41. 

folicola Hedl. (Papuina) xiii, 120. 

Mini Morel. = Streptostele. 

folliculus Pfr. = Diplommatina. 

(ontaihii Orb. xi, 62. 30 

foutinalis Brug. = Physa. 

foidii Pils. xi, 205. 41 

foimoseusis II. Ad. xiv, 19. 

forreri Mss. xii, 46. 47 

1'ouuaki H. & J. xiii, 79. 55 

fourmiersi Orb xi, 71. 31 

foveolatus Rve. x, 46. 21 

fragilior Ilier. xiv, 121. 5 

frac/ilis Lain. xiv. 171. 
frngilis Spix x, 55. 

francoiM Mal>. xiii, 74. 55 

Iraseri Plr. xii, 193. 65 

fraterculus Auct. xi, 40. 

fraterculus Fer. xi, 46. 30 

frater F6r. viii, 10. 

Iresnoensis Pils. xi, 304. 45 

fucatus Rve. xi, 234. 42 

fulgetrum Brod. viii, 13. 
fulgurata Mill, x.i, 227. 
fulguratus Jay xiii, 111. 56 

fulgnratus Val. x, 21. 
fulgur Mill, xii, 143. 61 

fuligineus Pfr. xiii, 10. 55 

fulminans Nyst. x, 66. 17 



fultoni Anc. xiii, 197. 
fulvescens Pfr. xii, 141. 61 

fnlvus Biug. = Aehatinidse. 
funcki Nyst. x, 43, 6 

fuueralis Brug. xiv, 160. 45 

fuDgairinoi Hid. xii, 2C4. 65 

furcillatus Mss. xiii, 216. 
fusca Anc. xiv, 138. 
fuscagula Lea xiv, 58. 
fuBtagula Rve. xiv, 52. 
fuscatus Brug. = Melaniid. 
fuscobasis Sm. xi, 289. 45 

/tc0?a&rt> Mlldff. xiii, 199. 
fuscoventris Bs. xiv, 4. 
fuscusGldg. xi,49. 
fusiformis Mke. xiv, 54. 
fusiformis Rang, xiv, 42. 
fusiformis Tschudi x, f>9. 
fnsoides Orb. xi, 201 ; xiv. 154. 41 
fusus Brug. xiv, 281. 


gabbi Aug. xii, 70. 
gabbianus Binn. xii, 70. 
gabbi C. & F. xi, 147. 
G^EOTIS Shutt. xii. 227. 
galactostoma Anc. xii, 194. 
galapaganus Pfr. xi, 106. 
galeottii Nyst. xi, 133. 
galericulum Mss. xiv, 10. 
gallinasultana Auct. xii, 189. 65 
galloprovincialis Math. 1842=Glan- 


garciamoreni Mill, x, 14. 
gareana Pfr.-Cless. xiii, 41. 54 

gargantua Dh. (Clausilia) xiv, 31. 
garganlua Fe"r. xiv, '64. 
garganlula Bk. xiv, 81. 
garretti Pils. xiii, 103. 
gassiefci Pils (Drap.). 
gastrum Mss. = pusio Brod. 
gatopensis Cr. xiii, 51. 
gaudryanus Gass. xiii, 64. 
gayi Plr. xi, 18. 
gealei H. Ad. xii, 59. 
gedeanus Bttg. xiv, 11. 
gelidus Rve. xi, 320. 
gemellatus Anc. xiv, 170. 
GEOCERAS Pils. x, 136. 
geometricus Pfr. xi, 234. 
GEOPYRGUS Pils. x, 135. 
gereti Auc. xiv, 159. 
germaini Anc. xi, 206. 
ghiesbreghti Pfr. xii, 50. 
gibberulus Burr. xiv. 107. 
gibbonius Hid. x, 87. 





gibbonius Lea. x, 75; xiv, 127. 

gibboreus Pfr. Cless. xiv, 127. 

*ibbosa Gld. in Hutt.=Buliuus 

gibbus Nic.=Rillyia. 

gilvus Sowb. vii, 205. 

giiaudi Bgt. = Livanhacia. 

glaber Brug. = Cochlicopa. 

glaber Dh. x, 114. 

glabra Gmel. (Voluta) x, 113. 

glandiformis Lea x, 78. 

glandiformisPlr.yL, 78. 

glandiniformis Sowb. xi, 61. 

glans Brug. = Glandina. 

glaucolarynx Dim. xiii, 180. 

glaucopthalmus Pfr. viii, 7. 

glaucostomus Alb. xi, 256. 

globosus Mart, x, 37; xiv. 124. 

Globulinus C. & F. xi, 125. 

globuloides Mss. (Tomig.) xiv, lOo. 

globulosa Lam. (Anost.) xiv, 115. 

globulus Grat. 1845 = Hydrobia. 

glomeratus Hve. = Macroceramus. 

gloriosus Pfr. xii, 197. Cl 

glyptocephalus Pils. xi, 93. 
I gnauensis Scbni. xiii, 107. 
1 gnomon Bk. Ind. 62. 

goniobasis Pils. xi, 262. 

Goniognathmm C. & F. xi, 182. 

goniobtoma Fei . x, 122. 

Gonwstomus Alb. x, 121. 

GONYOSTOMUS Bk. x, 121. 

goroensis Souv. xiii, 54. 

gt)i-iittiensis Pils. xi, 66. 

gossei Pfr. = Macroceramus. 

gouadaloupensis Bk. xi, 38. 

goudoti Pet. xi, 314. 

goulvainensis Kob. xiii, 67. 

goyettenbis Cr. xiii, 62. 

gracilior C. & F. xii, 58. 

gracilior Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 132. 

gracilior Mart, xii, 78. 48 

gracilior Mart. (Caljcia) xiv, 22. 










gracilior Pfr. xii, 74. 
gracilior Pils. xi, 173. 
gracilis Brod. xiii, 110. 
gracilis Fult. xiii, 192. 
gracilis Hutt. = Opeas. 
gracilis Lea viii, 16. 
gracilis Lea xi, 214. 
gracilis Mart, xiii, 210. 
graeffei Cr. xiii, 104. 56 

gram mica Cr. xiii, 44. 54 

graudidieri C. & F. = Clavator. 
grandis Desb. = Gibbus. 
prandis Mts. (Stroph.) x, 26 ; xiv, 
122. 5, 71 

graniger Bk. xi, 8, 



granocinctiiR Pils. xiv, 126. 21 

granvloiut P. & M. xi, 8. 
grnnuloKUS Rang, x, 20. 5 

gratus Pfr. xi, 313. 45 

gratwicki Cox xiii, 11. 51 

gravesii King xi, 7. 
gravidus Pfr. = Acha'inella. 
grayanus Pfr. xiv, 32. 
gregarius Voltz = Hydrobia. 
grenadensisGupp. (Auris)x, 114. 16 
grenadensis Pfr. xi, 300. 45 

grevillei Pfr. xii, 156. 62 

grossus Bk. xiv, 172. 
gruneri Pfr. xi, 305. 
guadalupensis Brug. xi, 38 ; xiv, 
143. 29 

guadaloupensis Rve. xi, 38. 
guairensis Jouss. x, 111. 16 

gnaneusis Grt. xiii, 107. 56 

guarani Orb. xiv, 53. 
gueinzii Pfr. xi, 233. 42 

guentheri Sowb. x, 72; xiv, 129. 18 
guerini Pfr. x, 39. 6 

guestieri Gass. xiii, 51. 54 

guildingi Dim. x, 71. 
guildimrii Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
guimarasensis Rve. viii, 10. 
gummatns Hid. x, 23. 5 

gundlachi Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
gunni Sowb. xiii, 18. 51 

guppyi Sm. xiii, 82. 55 

guttatus Brod. x, 163. 25 

guttula Pfr. xi, 314. 49 

guttulalus Schauf. xi, 259. 


habeli Stearns xi, 123. 34 

liachensis Rve. xiv, 144. 30 

7icema8tomus Gm. (Turbo) x, 29. 
hcemastomun Sw. x, 25. 
haematospira Pils. xiv, 149. 32 

hsematostoma Mlldff. xiii, 182 ; 

xiv, 169. 

bainesi Pfr. viii, 26. 
br.itensis Pils. xii, 12. 46 

Hamadryas Alb. xi, 191. 
hamadiyas Pb. xi, 226. 42 

hamatus Fult. xiii, 224. 
hamiltoni Rve. x, 149. 25 

bap'oclnous Pfr. xi, 74. 31 

hargravesi Cox xiii, 93. 55 

hartmaui Kob. xiii, 73. 55 

harlmanni Kob. xiii, 73. 55 

hartogensis Kob. xiv, 166. 51 

bartwegi Pfr. x, 52. 21 

basta Pfr. = Pseudobalea. 

I bauxwelli Or. x, 120. 16 

\HebridariaPl\*.JLli\, 115. 

' hebridarum Mab. xiii, 75. 55 

I hector Pfr. x, 50. 21 

beereanus Mss. xiii, 138. 
begewiscbi Pfr. xii, 52; xiv, 162. 47 
heilprihianus Dall xiv, 103. 
heimburgi Kob. xiii, 93, 236. 55 

, helicoide* Pfr. vii, 178. *- 

: beloicus Orb. x, 183; xiv, 138. 

HEMIBULIMUS Mart, xii, 184. 64 

i bemicyclus Rocb. xiii, 193. 
hempJiilli Wr. xii, 5. 46 

hennahi Gray x, 156. 25 

henselii Mart, xi, 254. 43 

hepatica Bolt, xii, 168. 
hepaticus Alb. xi, 291. 45 

hepatostomus Pfr. xii, 62. 47 

bermanni Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
heterogeneus Pfr. xii, 85. 48 

beterogrammus Moric. xi, 321. 32 
beterogyrus Ph. xi, 174. 37 

beterostomus Edwards =Pomatias. 
heterostylus Pils. xiii, 72. 55 

heterotrichuR Moric. xi, 75. 31 

hexodon Waldb. (Anost.) xiv, 115. 
heynemanni Pfr. xii, 68. 48 

hiabundus Mart, xii, 42. 47 

bidalgoi DaC. xi, 210. 41 

hienguenensis Cr. xiii, 30. 53 

hieroglypbicus P. & M. =Ompha- 


hilaiiii Gray xiv, 72. 
Mlarus Ads. xi, 3 IB. 
hindsi Pfr. viii. 35. 
hindsi Rve. viii, 35. 
hirtvs Beck xi, 77. 
bistiio Pfr. xii, 162. 
hjalmarsoni Pfr. xii, 7. 46 

hobsoni Cox xiii, 91, 237. 55 

boflnianni Mart, xii, 70. 48 

hololeucus Pfr. viii. 37. 
holostoma Pfr. x, 134. 24 

homal< gyrus Sb. = Stenogyra. 

i hombroni Cr. xiii, 80. 55 

honduranus Mart, xii, 89. 48 

honduiasanus Pfr. xii, 88. 48 

honduratianus Tr. xii. 89. 48 

hongii Suter xiii, 235. . 53 

hoodensis Dall xiv, 151. 34 

hopei Serres = Rillyia. 

1 bosei Sm. xiii, 220. 
houelmontensis Cr. xi, 45. 29 

boyti Grt. xiii, 105. 56 

buascensis Rve, x, 174. 26 

buayaboensis Dautz. . 24 

buascari Tschudi x, 16. 4 



humboldtii Rve. xi, 292. 

lniniilis Tils, xiii, 10. 51 

Impeanus Morel, x, 19. 5 
hyalinus Wagn. x, 55. 

hyaloideus Pfr. xi, 61. 30 

hybridus Gld. x, 123. 8 

hybridus Kob. xiii, 63. 54 
hyematus Rve. xii, 49. 

hygrohylaeus Orb. xi, 194. 41 

HYPKRAULAX Pils. xiv. 102. 57 

hypozonus Mart, xii, 74. 48 


ictericus Mart, xi, 299. 45 

ictericus Mart, xii, 37. 47 

icterostoma Mart, xiv, 132. 15 

ignavus Rve. xi, 57. 30 

ignobilis Ph. xi, 317. 49 

iguapensis Pils. xiv, 119. 4 

iheringi Cless. x, 196; xiv, 122. 5 
iheringi Pils. xiv, 96. 
illheocola Mor. x, 106. 15 

imbricata Rocb. (Ampbibulima) 

xii, 233. 

imbricatus Gass. xiii, 44. 54 

imitator Pils. xii, 140. 61 

iramaculatus Ads. xii, 10. 46 

imperfectus Gupp. xii, 19. 46 

imperialis Lea (Lymnaea) x, 195. 
impressus Tscbudi. x, 46. 
impunctatus Anc. xiv, 11. 
inaequalis Pfr. xi, 199. 41 

inauris Bttg. xiii, 138. 
inca Orb. x, 56. 21 

incai natus Pfr. xi, 300. 45 

incertus Gass. xiii, 63. 54 

incertus Pfr. Buliminopsis. 
incisus Hupe xii, 179. 64 

inclinatus Pfr. xi, 221. 42 

incomptus Pfr. viii, 28. 
inconstans Fult. xiii, 2C9. 
incrassatus Pfr. xi, 102. 33 

indefatigabilis Dall. xiv, 152. 34 
indentatus DaC. xiv. 281. 
indicus Pfr. Opeas. 
indistinctus Gupp. xii, 21. 
indistiuctus Pfr. xiv, 144. 
indistmctus Pils. xiii, 192. 
indutus Mke. xiii, 13. 51 

inermis Morel, xi, 51. 30 

inflatus Brod. x, 168. 
inflatus Fult. (Arnph.) xiii, 133. 
inflatus Lam. (Botbriemb.) xiii, 3. 


inflatus Olivier 1801 = Clausilia. 
inflatus Spix xi, 253. 

inflatus Faujas = Hydrobia. 
inflatus Wagn. (Odont.) xiv, 60. 
infrapictus Mart, xiii, 152. 
infraviridis Mts. xiii, 152. 
infundibuliformis Jay x, 131. 
infundibulum Gass. xiii, 40. 53 

infundibulum Pfr. x, 131. 24 

infuscata Anc. xi, 103. 
ingens Mlldff . xiii. 175. 
inglorius Rve. xii,' 67. 48 

inornatus Fult. xiii, 223. 
inscendens W. G. B. xi, 150. 36 
insignior Euth. xiii, 40. 
insignis Pet. xiii, 43. 54 

iusularis Coop, xi, 137'. 35 

integer Pfr. xii, 153. 62 

intercedens Mart, x, 23. 
intermedium Cr. xiii, 63. 54 

interraedius Pfr. xiv, 6. 
| iutermedias Reuss. 
I interpictus Mart, xi, 198. 41 

' intei punctus Mart, xi, 287 ; xix, 
159. 44 

interruptus Auct. xiii, 211. 
interruptus Mull, xiii, 150. 
iuterstitialis Mart, xii, 50. 47 

intertextus Pils. x, 32 ; xiv, 123. 5 
iuterstinctus Gld. = Peiideiis. 
inusiiatus Fult. xiv, 162. 48 

in ut ills Rve. xi, 73. 31 

invalidus Reib. xi, 102. 
inversus Mull, xiii, 167. 
involutus Mart, xi, 187. 39 

iocosei^is D.autz. xiv, 135. 24 

iodes Shutt. xii, 21<'. 66 

iodostomus D. & H. xi, 223. 
iodostylus Pfr. xii. fiO. 
iostoma Sowb. xii. 150. 62 

irazueubis Ang. xii, 68. 48 

iris Pfr. xii, 157. 62 

iiregulari-s Pfr. xi, 34. 28 

irroratus Rve. xii, 145. 62 

isabellina Mart, xii, 142. 61 

iscbnus Pils. 71 

iserui Phil, x, 57. 21 

issel liana T.-C. (Calycia) xiv, 22. 
istapensis C. & F. xi, 53. 30 

jacobi Rve. xi, 113. 

jacobi Sowb. xi, 111; xiv, 151. 34 

jamaicensis Pfr. Euspiraxis pro- 


jamaicensis Pils. xii, 107. 61 

jant-irensis Sowb. xiv, 51. 
jansoni Mart, xii, 37. 47 



Janus Pfr. xiii, 156. 

ja^pideus Morel, x. 61. 21 

/<i*i>ideus Morel. 1866 I.imicolaria. 

jiiteai Hupe xii, 204. 65 

javanicus Sowb. xiii. 140. 

jayantt* Lea xiii, 168. 

jtffreysi Pfr. xii, 93. 49 

K'Ukii Lub. x, 58. 21 

jimenezi Hid. x, 86. 18 

johannimis Morel. Opeas. 

jonapi Pfr. xii, 54. 47 

Joseph us A no. xii, 32. 46 

jousseaumei Dautz. 41 

juana Cous. x, 164. 25 

juartzifh. xi, 136. 

jueundus Fult. (Ampin.) xiii, 203. 

jucundus Pfr. x, 82. 18 

juglans Pfr. vii, 209. 

juJinhuhni xiii, 138. 

jung air inoi Hid. xii. 204. 65 

.juquileiiMs Mart, xii, 88. 48 

jussieui Hupe xi, 26, 

jussieui ' Val.' Pfr. xi, 25. 

juvencus Men. xiv, 52. 

juvenilis Pfr. xi, 59. 30 


kalaoensis Fult. xiii, 204. 
kambeul Brug. = Limicolaria. 
kammereri Mch. xii, 25. 
kanalensis Cr. xiii, 38. 53 

kantavuensis Cr. xiii, 101. 55 

kefersteinii Pfr. xii, 60. 
kelletti Rve. xii, 204. 65 

keppelli Pfr. xi, 296. 
kershawi Biaz. xiii, 123. 
kieneri Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
kiugii Gray, xiii, 7. 51 

knoblauchi Kob. xiii, 43. 54 

knorri Pfr. xi, 257. 
kobeltianus Doer, xiv, 86. 
kobelti Rolle xiii, 216. 
kochi Pfr. xi, 314. 49 

koppeli Sowb. xi, 242. 
koroensis Grt. xiii, 101. 55 

koseritzi Cless. xi, 79. 31 

krebsianus Pils. xi, 62. 30 

kreftii Cox xiii, 81. 55 

kremnoicus Orb. x, 15. 4 

kronei Iher. xiv, 118. 4 

kruijti Sar. xiii, 233. 
kuhnholtzianus Cr. xiv, 74. 

labeo Brod. xii, 199. 
labeo Rve. xii, 201. 


labiozonalis Grat. viii, 16. 
labrella Grat, (Partula) viii, 48. 
labropurpureus Grat. viii, 8. 
Idbrosus Mke. xiv, 63. 
btfn/ritiMius Ant. xiv, 95. 
lacerta Pfr. x, 115. 16 

lacrirnosus Heimb. x, 199. 19 

lactarius Mke. xi, 134. 
lacteus Brug. = Melania. 
lactetis Lea xi, 302. 45 

lacticolor Sowb. xiv, 172. 
lactirluus Pfr. x, 140. 24 

lacunosus Orb. x, 17. 5 

laetus live. xi. 245. 43 

laevigatus C. B. Ad. = Opeas. 
laevigatuR Dh. Bitbinia. 
laems Miill., Pils. xiii, 214. 
Iseviusculus C. B. A. = Euspiraxis. 
laevolongus Boub. = Rillya. 
laevus Miill. xiii, 214; xiv, 167. 
lagotis Mke. xi, 190. 
lalannei Gass. xiii, 44. 54 

lamarckianus Pfr. x, 75. 
lamas Higg. xi, 272. 44 

lamberti Gass. xiii, 49. 54 

lamellifer Pils. xi, 160. 36 

laminiferus Anc. xiv, 37. 
laosianus Bav. xiii, 183. 
lapidivagus Mab. xi, 161. 36 

largillierti Ph. x, 50. 21 

larreyi Braz. xiii, 124. 
larvatus Brod. viii, 47. 
lascellesiana Sm. xii, 22. 46 

lateralis Mke. xi, 188. 39 

lateritius Pils. xi, 320. 39 

latestrigatus Schep. xiii, 207; xiv, 


latevittata Sh. xii, 203. 65 

laticinctus Gupp. xii. 16. 46 

lalilabris Pfr. x, 85. 
latior Mart, xi, 251. 
lati&trigatus Fult. xiii, 208. 
latistrigatus Pils. xi, 176. 37 

lattrei Pfr. xii, 41. 47 

laurentii Sowb. x, 164. 25 

lautus Gld. xi, 240. 
layardi Braz. xiii, 115. 56 

layardi Kob. xiii, 33. 53 

leai Pils. xi, 213. 41 

leai Pfr. viii, 32. 

leeuwinensis Sm. xiii, 13. 51 

lehmanni Pfr. xi, 42. 29 

leimonias Gray = Laoma. 
LEIOSTRACUS Alb. xii, 90. 49 

lemniscatus Dh. x, 156. 
lemoinei Anc. (Odont.) xiv, 90. 
lemoinei Cossm. 1889 = Buliminus. 



lentigincsus Ph. xiv, 158. 44 

lentiginosus Redf. x, 73. 
leopardus Pfr. viii, 9. 
l.'HdusGld. xiii, 190. 
Leptobyrsus C. & F. xi, 155. 
leptochilus Pfr. x. 40. 
leptodon Mart, xiv, 74. 
Leptomerus Alb. xi, 35. 
leporis Lam. xi, 190. 
leseuerianus Morel, x, 149. 25 

lessoni Pet. xiii, 57. 54 

LKUCOCHARIS PUs xiii, 67. 56 

leucochilus P. & C. xii, 129. 61 
leucolenus Cr. xiii, 42. 54 

leucomelas Alb. xi. 274. 44 

leucostictus Ph. x, 141. 94 

leucostoma Cr. xiii, 36. 53 

leucostoma S wb. x, 18. 5 

leucostomus Pfr. x, 19. 
leucotrema Bk. xiv, 64. 
leucoxanthus Mart, xiii, 163. 
leucoxarthus Pfr.-Cless. xiii, 161. 
levis Pall, xi, 140. 35 

llievminieri Fisch. xi, 44. 29 

liberianus Lea 1840 Ennea. 
libertadensis Pils. xi, 291. 45 

librosus Pfr. viii, 12. 
lichenifer Mch. viii, 54. 
lichenorum Orb. x, 145. 24 

lichenorum Rve. x, 145. 
hchenum Bk. x, 145. 24 

lichtensteini Alb. x, 32. 5 

Uebmanni Pfr. xii, 38. 47 

lifouanus Cr. xiii, 48. 54 

lifuana Pile, xiv, 17. 
lignarius Pfr. vii, 205. 
LIGUUS Monti, xii, 161. 62 

Hliaceus Fer. xii, 10. 46 

lilacinus Rve. xii, 35. 47 

lima Orb. 1842. 
lima Reib. xi, 125. 
limensis Rve. x, 158. 25 

limnseformis, Meek & Hayd. 
limnceoides Alb. xi, 43. 
limnoides Fer. xi, 42. 29 

limonoicus Orb. x, 165. 25 

limpida Prt. xii, 223. 
lindstedti Pfr. xiii, 228. 
lineata Val. xii, 168. 
Imeatus Brug. = Macroceramus. 
liueatus Drap. = Acicula. 
lineatus Perry = Achatina. 
Imeatus Spix xii, 97. 49 

lineolatus Braun. = Pupa, 
lineolatus Con. xii, 57. 47 

linosloma Bid. xi, 209. 
liuostoma Orb. xi, 218. 41 

Muter Sowb. x, 67. 17 

linteus Conrad. A. J. C. vi, 195. 

Liostracus Mart, xii, 90. 

Liparus Alb. xiii, 1. 50 

Lip fir us Mart, xiii, 1 . 50 

liquabilis Rve. xi 129. 

lirinus Morel, xii, 57. 47 

LISSOACME Pils. x, 154. 25 

lister i Fer. xiv, 61. 

listen Wood x, 103. 

lita Fer. xi, 251. 

lithoicus Orb. x, 179. 28 

literal!* Brura. Coclilicella. 

lituratus Spix xi, 251. 

livens Shutt. xii, 118. 61 

livescens Pfr. xii, 80. 48 

livida Mart, xii, 124. 61 

lividus Rve. xi, 301. 45 

lobbi Rve. xi, 177. 37 

lobbi Rve. xiv, 153. 37 

longcevus Anc. xiv, 1(3. 

longaevus Serres Rillya. 

longa Pfr. xii, 126. 61 

longinguus Morel, xi, 293. 45 

longiseta Moric. xi, 77. 31 

longissimus Orb. 1847 = Limnaea 

long. Math. 1843. 
longulus Behn xiv, 53. 
lophoicus Orb. xi, 202. 41 

loratns Ant. Acbatinella. 
lorentziauusDoer. x, 197; xiv, 125. 5 
lorenzii Orb. x, 164. 
loricatus Pfr. xiii, 140. 
loroisianus Hupe xii, 183. 64 

lotophaga Morel. -= Streptostele. 
loveni Pfr. x, 67. 17 

loxanus Higrg. xi, 270. 44 

loxensis Mill. (Zebra), x, 52. 
loxensis Pfr. xi, 265. 43 

loxostomus Pfr. x, P2. 21 

loyaltyensis Souv. xiii, 68. 56 

lubricus Brug. Cochlicopa. 
luciaB Pils. xi, 86. 32 

lucidus DaC. xi. 219. 
lucidus Rve. xii, 13. 
ludovici Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
ludovicus Rang xii, 25. 
lugubris Dkr. x, 68. 17 

lugubris Pfr. Achatinella. 
luridus Pfr. x, 194. 26 

lusorius Pfr. xi, 202. 41 

lutea Ant. xii, 168. 
lutea Cous. x, 54. 
lutea Fult. (Amph.), xiii, 233. 
luteofasciatus Fult. xiii, 223. 
luteolus Anc. xiv, 145. 31 

lutescens King x, 36 ; xiv, 125. 5 



luzonicus Sowb. viii, 44. 

lychnorum Sowb. x, 157. 

lyellicp. Bk. xi, 125. 

lymmeformis Roch. (Bocourtia) 

xiv, 23. 

lymnoides Rve. xi, 43. 
lynciculus D. & H. x, 94. 19 

lyoiietianus Brug. = Gibbus. 
lyonetiamis Kiist. xi, 189. 


mabillei Cr. x, 79 ; xiv, 127. 17 

macandrewi Sowb. xii, 147. 61 

macfarlandi Braz. xiii, 83. 55 

macfarlandi Kob. xiii, 80. 
macfarlanei Paetel xiii, 83. 
macgillivrayi Pfr. xiii, 84. 55 

macileutus Rve. Opeas. 
macleayi Braz. xiii, 121. 
macluia? Mart, xii, 125. 61 

macouelli Rve. xiii, 122. 
MACRODONTES xiv, 29. 57 

macrospira C. B. A. Stenogyra. 
macrostoma Pfr. vii, 208. 
maculatus Brug. xi, 297. 
maculatus Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 202. 
maculatus Lea. xi, 297. 
maculiferus Pils. xiii. 5. 51 

maculiferus Sowb. xiii, 130. 
maculosus Doer. (Odont, ) xiv, 78. 
maculosus Mart, xii, 32. 46 

maderensis Lowe = Cochlicopa. 
magnificus Grat. x, 46. 21 

magnificus Rve. xii, 185. 64 

magus Wagn. xi, 253 43 

mahogani Pfr. x, 46. 
mahogani Sowb. x, 18. 
major Gass. xiii, 60. 54 

major Orb xi, 286. 
major Orb. xiv, 70. 
major Strob. xiv, 98. 
makassariensis H. & J. xiii, 155. 
malleata Pils. xii, 230. 70 

malleatus DaC. xi, 249. 43 

malleatus Jay xiii, 112. 56 

mangsianus Pils. xiii, 223. 
manica Dh. = Cerion muinia. 
manini Cpr. xi, 115. 
manoeli Moric. xii, 96. 49 

manupictus Rve. xi, 304. 45 

manzanillensis Gdl. Melaniella. 
maracaibensis Pfr. xii, 137; xiv, 164. 


maraiihonensis Alb xii, 198. 65 
marcidus Pfr. xiv, 146. 31 

mareana Cr. xiii, 46. 54 

manse Alb. xi, 134. 35 

maricB Mor. xi, Wo. 

niariaiius Pilis. xi, 230. 42 

maiiei C. & F. xiii, , r ). r ). 54 

marielinus xii, 4 46 

inarmarinus Orb. xi, 194. 41 

mai matensis Plr. xi, (>l. 30 

marmatensis Pils. xii, 159. 62 

marmoratus Dkr. x, 40. 6 

marmorinus Alb. xi, 194. 

mars Pfr. xii, 143. 61 

martensianus Pils. (Stroph.) 71 

martensi Bttg. (Amphi.) xiii, 158. 

maitensii Doer. (Odunt.) xiv, 88. 

martensi Kob. (Both.) xiv, I(i6. 51 

martens! Plr. Achatinidso. 

martinicensis Plr. xi, 47. 30 

masoni G.-A. xiii, 189. 

mastersi Braz ix, 18. 

mastersi Cox. xiii, 17. 51 

Mastogyra A no. xii 239. 

matt hews i Bk. x, 18. 

mathiusii Orb. x, 17. 5 

maxima Sowb. (Cochlogena) x, 15. 

maximiliana Fer. x, 100. 
maximus iiupe. x, 18. 

mazei Cr. xi, 48. 30 

Megalobulimus Mill. x. 194; xiv, 12u. 

mejillonensis Pfr. x, 177. 26 
melanocheilus Auct. xii, 110. 

melanocheilus Nyst. x, 44. 21 

melanoeheilus Val. xii, 122. 61 
melanogaster Mch. viii, 53. 
melanomma Pfr. xiii, 161. 

melanoscolops Dhn. xi, 231. 42 

melanostoma Gray xii, 178. 64 

melanostoma Mor. x, 101. 15 

melanostomus Auct. x, 103, 104, 106. 

melastoma Sw. x, 102. 15 

melastoma Sw. xii, 178. 64 Pfr. xi, 315. 49 

melones Fer. xiii. 4. 51 

melo Q. G. xiii. 5. 51 

membieliuus Cr. xi, 209. 41 

membranacea Mich, xii, 215. 66 

membrauaceus Mart, xii, 74. 48 

membranaceus Pli xi. 237. 42 
membranaceus Rve. xi, 312. 

mendaiiai Kob. xiii, 89. 55 

meiidozanus Strob. xi, 71, 319. 31 
menkcana F6r. xiv, 52. 

menkei Grim, xii, 28. 46 

meobambeiiMs Plr. xii, 191. 65 
meobarnbicus Moric. xi, 219. 

mercurius Pfr. xiv, 140. 28 

meridanus Pfr. xi, 303. 45 



meridionalis Gistel, 1848 = Bulimi- 


mesembrinus Alb. xi, 192. 
metabletus Mlldff. xiii, 174, 237; 

xiv, 168. 

metamorphus Pils. x, 157. 25 

METOSTRACON Pils. xii, 232. 
METORTHALICUS Pils. xii, 192. 65 
raexicanus Lam. xi, 291. 45 

mexicanus live, xii, 74. 48 

mexilloensis Schauf. x, 177. 
meyeri Reuss, 1849. 
michaudi Boiss. 1848 = Rillyia. 
michaudi Montr, xiv, 15. 
raicra Orb. = Opeas. 
microceras Braun = Moitessieria. 
microdon Pfr. = Macroceramus. 
midas Alb. x, 119. 16 

miersii Pfr. xii, 218. 66 

miersii Sowb. x, 124. 8 

miliaris Ph. xi, 281. 44 

miliola Orb. xiv, 52. 
millegranus Mart, xi, 170. 37 

milleri Sowb. x, 8; xiv, 118. 4 

miltocheilus Rve. xiii, 94. 55 

miltochrous Alb. xi, 290. 45 

mirnarum Anc. xiv, 154. 38 

miudoroensis Brod. viii, 53. 
minimus Brug. = Carycbium. 
minimus C. B. Ad. = ? Opeas. 
minor Braz. xiii, 95. 55 

minor Doer, xiv, 99. 
minor Kob. xiii, 86, 55 

minor Mart, xi, 56. 30 

minor Miill. xii, 156. 62 

minor Orb. xiv, 7t. 
minor Pils. xiii, 12. 51 

minutus Klein. = Subulina. 
mirabilis C. B. Ad. = Nothus. 
mirus Dh. = Megalomastoma. 
mitra Mart, xiii, 155. 
modestus Brod. x, 161. 25 

moestai Dkr. xi, 6. 27 

nioguntianus Fauj. Littorinella. 
molecillus Rve. xi, 63. 30 

monachus Plr. xi, 282. 44 

monackensis Cr. xiii, 58. 54 

mouiezi Dautz. xiv, 136. 24 

monile Brug. Melampus. 
monilifer Rve. xiv, 145. 
moniliferus Gld. xiii, 179. 
monozona Anc. xiv, 163. 
monozonalis Dh. x, 47. 21 

monozonus Pfr. vii, 207. 
montagnei Orb. xi, 280. 44 

montanus Pils. xiv, 161. 45 

montevalensis Schaur. 

montevidensis Pfr. xi, 68, 320. 30 
montezuma Dall xi, 144. 35 

mouticola Dall xi, 150. 36 

monticola Doer, x, 181. 
monticola Ph. x, 187. 
moritivagus Orb. xi, 90; xiv, 147. 32 
mooreunus W. G. B. xi, 130. 35 
morbidus Ph. xi, 283. 44 

MORICANDIA P. & V. xiv, 40. 57 
moricandi Pfr. xii, 78. 48 

moricandi (Succinea) Pfr. xii, 221. 
moritinctus Mart, xii, 79. 48 

moritzianns Pfr. x, 39. 6 

Mormus Alb. xi, 192. 
morosus Gld. xiii, 113. 56 

mossi Sm. xii, 21. 46 

motaguse Mart, xii, 65. 48 

mouhoti Pfr. xiii, 186. 
moussonii Graeffe xiii, 104. 56 

moussoni Pfr. xii, 8. 46 

moutonii Coll. = Cochlicella. 
moyobambensis Mart, xii, 191. 
mucidus Gld. = Pe ideris. 
muliebris Rve. xi, 216. 42 

rniilleri Orb. = Glaudina. 
multieoior Mlldff. xiii, 131. 
multicolor Rang x, 126. 6 

multicosta Gdl. = Melaniella. 
multidentatus Doer, xiv, 99. 
multifasciatus Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 


multifasciatus Lm. xii, 14. 46 

multilineatus Say xii, 27. 46 

rnultiplicatus Doer, xiv, 101. 
multispiratus Doer, xiv, 89. 
mumia Brug. = Cerion. 
mundus Pfr. xiii, 174. 
munieri v. Haut. 

munsteii Orb. x, 185. 26 

muricatus Brug. = Melaniidse. 
murrea Rve. xii, 168. 
murrinus Rve. xi, 214. 42 

nans Brod. viii, 6. 
muscorum Brug. = Pupa. 
musicus Pact, xi, 229. 
musivus Pfr. xi, 229. 
mutabilis Brod. xi, 14. 28 

mutabilis Sowb. xi, 16. 
mycrostoma Hass. xiii, 137. 
myersii Sowb. (Bulinusj x, 7. 
myoporinse Tate. = Pupoides. 
myristicus Rve. xi, 178; xiv, 154. 37 


N^SIOTUS Alb. xi, 94 ; xiv, 150. 33 
Bnus Lam. 1804 = RissoidaB. 


1 X X X 1 X 

nanus Rve. x, 141. 24, 71 

napo Ang. xi, 244. 43 

narcissus Alb. xi, 227. 42 

nasutus Mart, xiv, 44. 
nasutus (Helix) Mete, xiv, \'2. 
natunensis Fult. xiii. 162. 
navarrensis Aug. xii, 63. 
Navicula Spix xi, 185. 
navicula Wagn. xi, 186. 


iiebulosus Mart, xii, 43. 
neckliaiensis Kob. xiii, 56. 
necouensis Gass. xiii, 40. 
neglectus Pfr. xiv, 91. 
nehringi Mts. x, 51. 21 

nemoralis Zgl. Villa, Disp. p. 21. 
nemorensis Ph. xi, 22. 28 

NEOPETR^EUS Mart, xi, 163 ; xiv, 
152. 36 

neozelanicus Hutt. xiii, 25. 
Nesiotes Mart, xi, 94. 
nesioticus Dall. xi, 122. 34 

Nesiotus Cless. xi, 94. 
nichollsi Br. xi, 40. 29 

nicobaricus Nev. xiii, 218. 
nigra Gass. xiii, 63. 54 

nigricans Cous. x, 54 ; xi, 263. 
nigricans Cr. xiii, 36. 53 

nigrilabris Pils. (Auris) x, 102. 15 
nigroapicatus Pfr. xi, 284. 44 

nigrofasciatus Pfr. xi, 307. 45 

nigrofilosus Roch. xiii, 132, 166. 
nigrogularis Dhn. xi, 225. 42 

nigrolimbatus Pfr. xi, 315. 49 

nigrolineata Sh. xii, 229. 70 

uigromontanus Dall. xi, 128. 35 
nigropileatus Rve. x, 182 ; xiv, 137 


nimbosus Brod. viii, 21. 
nitelinus Rve. xii, 38. 
nitidissimus Kryn. = Achatinidse. 
nitidiusculus C. B. A. = Euspiraxis. 
nitidulus Bk. xi, 266 ; xii, 53. 
nitidulus Pfr. = Pupoides. 
nitiduB Brod. xi, 266. 
nitidus Lam. 1804 Eocene. 
nivalis Orb. xi, 72. 31 

niveus Heg. xi, 131. 
niveus Sar. xiii, 149. 
nobilis Rolle xii, 124; xiv, 164. 61 
nobilis Rve. viii, 10. 
novemgyratus Mss. = Opeas. 
novenarius Zgl. = Subulina. 
novoseelandicus Pfr. xiii, 24. 53 
nubeculatus Pfr. xi, 55. 30 

nuciformis Pet. xi, 101. 
nucinus Rve. xi, 24. 28 

nucula Pfr. xi, 106. 33 

nucleus Sowb. x, 35. 

nudus Reib. xi. 103. 33 

mix Brod. xi, ICO. 33 

niveus Bk. xii, 2. 

nympha Pfr. viii, 23. 

nystianus Pfr. xi, 262. 44 


obductus F. & C. xii, 116. 
obductus Sh. xii, 134. 61 

obesus Mart, xii, 78. 48 

obesus Mart, xiii, 148. 
obliquistiiatus DaC. xiv, 157. 44 
obliquus Rve. xii, 93; xiv, 163. 49 
oblitus Rve. xiv, 91. 
oblougus Mull, x, 29 ; xiv, 122. 5 
obscurus Fult. xiii. 131. 
obsoletus Moiel. Limicolaria. 
obtusa Pfr. xii, 215. 66 

obtusa Sowb. xii, 216. 66 

obtusatus Pfr. = Obeliscus. 
occidentalis Mill, xi, 266. 
occultus Rve. xiv, 48. 
ochraceus Bk. xi, 81; xii, 2. 
ochraceus Morel, xi, 31. 28 

ochrocheilus Sin. xi, 204. 41 

ochrostoma Grt. xiii, 108. 56 

ochseuii Dkr. xi, 10. 27 

octodentatum (Auost.) Waldh. xiv, 


octouoidea C. B. Ad. = Opeas. 
octonus Brug. = Subulina. 
ODONTOSTOMIN^S xiv, 24. 57 

ODONTOSTOMUS Bk. xiv, 38. 57 
odontostomus Sowb. xiv, 31. 
olaiuensis Doer, xiv, 79. 
olivacea Cous. x, 54. 
olla Dall xi, 113. 34= 

olorinus Duel, x, 174. 
omphalodes Mke. xii, 92. 49 

Omphaiofftyla Ads. xi, 94. 
onager Bk. xii, 94. 49 

onca Orb. x, 93. 19 

onslowi Cox xiii, 11. 51 

onyx Brod. vii, 199. 
onza Alb. x, 94. 

oosomus Pils. x, 27. 5 

opalinu* Sowb. xii, 98. 49 

orbignyi Pfr. x, 162. 
oreades Orb. xi, 277. 44 

orientalis Kob. xiii, 52. 54 

ornatus Fult. xiii, 223. 
orobaenus Orb. xi, 236. 42 

orophilus Morel, x, 183; xiv, 137. 26 
Orphaicus Schauf. x, 198. 
Orphnus Alb. x, 43. 



Ortalichm Mart, xii, 101. 
Orthalicinw F. & C. xii, 161. 
ORTHALICIN./E xii, 99. 57 

Orthalicus Auct. xii, 101. 61 

ORTHALICUS Bk. xii, 186. 64 

Orthaliscus Gray xii, 186. 
orthelasmus Pils. xi, 159. 36 

orthodoxus Dr. xi, 64. 30 

ortbostoma Sm. xi, 200. 41 

ORTHOTOMIUM C. & F. xi, 125. 34 
oryza Brug. = ? Opeas. 
oscitans Mart, xiii, 204. 
otabeitanus Drug. = Partula. 
Otostomus Auct. xi, 185. 
OTOSTOMUS Bk. x, 107. 15 

Otostomus Mart, xi, 182. 
otostomus Pfr, x. 117. 
ouagapensis Kob. xiii. 36. 53 

ouveanus Dotz. xiii, 47. 54 

ouensis Gass. xiii, 43. 
ovalis Gmel. x, 25. 
ovalis Kob. xiii, 45. 54 

ovata Cr. xiii, 41, 45. 54 

ovata Sowb. xii, 216. 66 

ovatus Miill. x, 24. 5 

ovipara (Helix) x, 196. 
ovoideus Brug. viii, 44. 
ovularis Oliv. 1801 = Pupa, 
ovulum Rve. xi, 88. 32 

ovulus Brug. = Melampus. 
ovum Ads. x, 25. 
ovum Fer. xiv, 171. 
ovum Desb. xiii, 4. 51 

ovum Gistel = inflatus Lam. 
OXYCHONA Mch. xi, 181. 37 

oxylabris Doer, x, 190. 26 

Oxystrombus Mch. xii, 161. 
OXYSTYLA Schliit. xii, 101. 60 

pacbycbilus Pfr. x. 35. 5 

Pachyota Agas. x, 95. 
Pachyotus Bk. x, 95. 
pachys Pils. xi, 88. 32 

paeteli Alb. xi, 295. 45 

paeteli Kob. xiii, 102. 56 

paivanus Pfr. xii, 38. 
palaceus Buscb. xiii, 134. 
palawanensis Pfr. viii, 14. 
paletuvianus Gass. xiii, 80. 55 

pallida Sw. xii, 168. 
pallidior Sowb. xi, 142. 35 

pallidula Cr. xiii, 42. 
pallidulus Pils. xiii, 144. 
pallidus C. B. Ad. Subuliua. 
pallidus Reib. xi, 112. 34 



pallidus Tate xiii, 15. 
palliolum Fer. xii, 231. 
palmarum Mss. xiii, 85. 
palpaloensis Streb. xii, 74. 
palustris Brug. = Limnsea. 
panamensis Brod. xii, 90. 
panavensis Pfr. = Opeas. 
pancheri Cr. xiii, 67. 
PANDA Alb. xiii, 122. 
panescorsi Matb. 1842. 
pangooB Morel, x, 198. 
paulistus P. & I. xiv, 33. 
pan Pfr. viii, 50. 
pantagruelinus Moric. xiv, ( 
papillaris Brug. = Clausilia. 
papillatus Mor. xi, 169. 
paposensis Pfr. x, 178. 
papyraceus Mawe. xi, 250. 
papyrifactus Pils. xi, 252. 
paradoxus Pfr. viii, 49. 
paraguayanus Anc. xiv. 71. 
parallelus Pfr. xiv, 48. 
paranaguensis Pils. & Iher. xiv 
124. i 

pardalina Gupp. xii, 237. 
pardalis Fer. x, 39. 
pardalis Rve. x, 41. 
parolinianus Orb. = Azeca. 
partuloides Brod. viii, 50. 
paru Bk. xiv, 43. 
parvus Lea xii, 29. 
pastorella Val. viii, 16. 
patagonicus Orb. xiv. 95. 





patasensis Pfr. xi, 176; xiv, 153. 37 


patens Gass. xiii, 40. 

patriarcba W. G. B. xi, 132. 

patricius Rve. xii, 36. 

patula Brug. xii, 234. 69 

patulus Kob. xiii, 236. 53 

pauperculus C. B. Ad. = Euspir- 


paucipuuctus Pils. xi, 255. 43 

pavonina 8pix. xii, 189. 65 

pazianus Orb. xi, 277. 44 

pazianus Tristr. xii, 41. 
pealei Paetel xi, 205. 
pealianus Lea xi, 217. 42 

peasei Cox xiii, 117. 56 

Pectella Gray xii, 231. 
peculiaris Kob. xiii, 42. 54 

pedipes Brug. = Pedipes. 
peelii Rve. xi, 205 ; xiv, 154. 41 
Pelecocheilus Alb. x, 64. 
Pelecostoma Reib. xi, 94. 
Pelecycheilus Mart, x, 64. 
Pelecychilus Mart, x, 108. 
Pelekocheilus Bk. x, 64. 



peliostomus 'Ph.' Pfr. x, 147. 25 
PELLICULA Fisch. xii, 241. 70 

pellucidus Gistel 1848 = Bnliminus. 
PELTELLA W. & B. xii, 231. 67 
ventadina Orb. (Helix) x, 93. 

fELTELLA VV . OS 15. XII, 881. 

pentadina Orb. (Helix) x, 93 
pentagruelinus Dh. xiv, 64. 
pentlandi live, xi, 27. 
perakensis Fult. xiv, 282. 
percomis Schauf. xi, 259. 
perdix Pfr. x, 118. 
peregrus Brug. = Limusea. 
perelegans Pils. xi, 11. 
perenensis DaC. xiv, 156. 
pergrauulatus Pils. xiv, 120. 
pericanus Ads. x, 180. 
perincrassatus Pils. xi, 169. 
peristomatus Doer, xi, 29. 
perla Miill. = Physa. 
perlonga Pils. xii, 117. 
perlucidus Spix xii, 98. 
PERON^EUS Alb. x, 138. 24 

perplexus Sowb. (Buliuus) x, 7. 
perrieri Roch. xiii, 181. 
perspectivus Pfr. xi, 110. 
pertristis Pils. xi, 301. 
peruvianns Brug. xi, 7. 
pervariabilis Pfr. xi, 300. 
perversus Brug. = Balea 
perversa Don. xiii, 160. 
perversa Spix xii, 180. 
perversus Auct. xiii, 179. 
perversus L. xiii, 147. 
perversus Sw. xii, 178. 64 

pervius Pfr. xiv, 139. 26 

pessulatus Rve. x, 188. 
petasites Mill, xi, 199. 41 

petenensis Morel, xi, 54. 30 

petiti Pfr. xi, 21. 28 

pfeifferianus Rve. viii, 21-. v 
pfeifferi Hid. (Corona), xii, 146. 64 
pfeifferi Kob. xiii, 109. 56 

phaBOStylus Pfr. viii, 41. 
phasianella Val. xii, 151. 
pbasianus Perry Phasianella. 
pbilippii Doer, xiv, 75. 
- philippii Pfr. x, 162. 
philippinensis Pfr. vii, 201. 
phlogera Orb. xii, 145; xiv, 165. 61 
phlogerus Pfr. xii, 144. 
phoebusPfr. x, 81. 17 

phryne Pfr. xi, 215. 42 

physalis Bs. xiv, 8. 
physodes Mke. xiii, 9, 234. 51 

phy&oides Rve. xiii, 9. 51 

pichardi Arango = Melaniella. 
picta Rve. xii, 168, 171. 
pictor Pfr. viii, 8. 








picturata Fe"r. xii, 15. 
pictus Bonnet xi, 286. 
pictus Brug. Melaniidse. 
pictus Fult, (Amphi.) xiii, 226. 
piescheli Mart, xii, 34. 
pileatus Dall.xi, 109. 33 

pileiformis Moric., xiv, 149. 32 

pilosus Gupp. xi, 85. 32 

pilsbryi Ford xiv, 38. 
pilsbryi Iher. xiv, 118. 4 

pilula W. G. B. xi, 138. 35 

pinicola Gass. xiii, 42. 53 

pintadinus Orb. x, 93. 19 

piperatoides Pils. xiv, 132. 19 

piperatus Rve. x, 89. 19 

pipeiitus Sowb. x, 89. 19 

pittieri Mart, xii, 61. 47 

piuranus Alb. x, 180. 26 

placidus Fult. xiii, 225. 
PLACOSTYLUS Beck, xiii, 19. 51 
placostylus Mlldff. xiii. 178. 
PLAGIODONTES Doer, xiv, 92. 57 
planidens Mich, x, 7. 4 

planospira Anc. xi, 104. 33 

platystomus Pfr. xi, 172; xiv, 153. 


PLATYSUCCINEA Anc. xii, 223. 67 
Plecocheilus Ads. x, 64. 
PLECTOSTYLUS Bk. xi, 2. 27 

plectostylus Pfr. x, 70. 17 

plectostylus Pfr. xiv, 129. 18 

PLEKOCHEILUS Gldg. x, 62, 64. 17 
Pleocheilus Gray x, 64. 
plicarius Brus. = Melauiidse. 
plicatoliratus DaC. xi, 260. 43 

plicatulus Pfr. xi, 72. 31 

plicatus Guild. = Acbatinidse. 
PLICOLDMNA Coop, xi, 151. 36 

! pliculatus Pfr.-Cless. xiv, 146. 31 
pliculosa Anc. xiv, 139. 
plumbeus Pfr. x, 49. 21 

pluto Cr. xi, 20. 28 

pluviatilis Pfr. xii, 64. 47 

pochutlensis C. & F. xii, 76. 48 
PCECILOCHARIS Kob. xiii. 73. 55 
! poacilochroa Bttg. xiii, 200. 
: pCBcilogramma Anc. xiv, 163. 
\pacilus Bttg. (Amphi.) xiii, 139. 
poecilus Orb. xi, 285. 44 

poeyanus Pfr. xii, 166. 63 

poeyanus Pfr. = Glandinella. 
politus Edw. 3= Tomichia. 
politus Rve. viii, 20. 
pollonersB Anc. xiv, 148. 
polygrammus Moric. xi, 252. 43 
polymorphus T. C. xiii, 171. 
polymorphus Orb. xi, 28. 28 



ponderosus C. & J. xiv, 171. 
ponderosa Streb. xii, 130. 61 

ponsonbyi Ang. xiii, 124. 
popanus Doer, xiv, 77. 
popelairiana Nyst. x, 13. 4 

porcellanus Mss. xiii, 201. 
porcellanus Roch. xiii, 194. 
porphyreus Pfr. x, 60. 21 

porphyrius Pfr. x, 61. 
Porphyrobaphe Auct. xii, 192. 
PORPHYROBAPHE Sh. xii, 149. 61 
poiphyrochila Dautz. et Bern. xiv. 

167. 56 

porphyrostomus Pfr. xiii, 57. 54 
porraceus Jay. viii, 48. 
porrectus Mart, xii, 44. 47 

portei Pfr. vii, 207. 
portii Pfr. vii, 207. 
portoricensis Sh. xii, 224. 
pouenanus Kob. xiii, 63. 54 

powisianus Pet. xii, 206. 65 

poyensis Kob. xiii, 61. 54 

prcBdlus Ant. xi, 286. 
praerosus Brug. = Melanopsis. 
praatextus Rve. xi, 238. 42 

priamus Brug. = Halia. 
prillwitzi Bttg. xiii, 139. 
primularis Rve. xi, 292. 45 

primula Rve. xvi, 247. 
principalis Sowb. (Tomig.) xiv, 107. 
princeps Brod. xii, 113. 61 

pringi Pfr. = Cochlicella. 
proboscideus Math. 1842 (Ampul- 

laria) = Anadromus. 
proceiula Cr. xiii, 36. 53 

procerus C. B. Ad. =Euspiraxis. 
proclivis Mart, x, 195; xiv, 122. 5 
prodeflexus Pils. x, 91. 19 

productus 'Ph.' Pfr. x, 148. 25 
profundidens Doer, xiv, 81. 
progastor Orb. xii, 223. 67 

prolatus Old. xi, 318. 27 

promethus Cr. xi, 28. 28 

pronyensis Gass. = Stenogyra. 
prostratus Schauf. xi, 225. 
proteiformis Dhrn. xi, 14. 28 

proteli Moric. xiv, 173. 
proteus Binn. xi, 143. 
proteus Brod. xi, 13; xiv, 140. 28 
proteus Gldg. xi, 13; xii, 25. 
PROTOGLYPTUS Pils. xi, 84. 32 
prototypus Pils. xii, 137; xiv, 164. 


protractus Pfr. xi, 224. 42 

provensali Nicol. = Nicolasia. 
proximus Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 198. 
proximus Sowb. x, 22. 

pruinosus Sowb. x, 175. 26 

pseudocaledonicus Montr, xiii, 62. 

pseudonyma Pils. xi, 278. 44 


pseudopiperatas Mor. x, 89. 19 

Pseudorhodea Dall. xi, 151. 
pseudosexdfintatus Doer, xiv, 85. 
pseudosuccinea Moric. xii, 221. 67 
Pseudotrochus Mch. xii, 161. 
psidii Mts. xii, 224. 67 

ptychostylus Pfr. xi, 178. 37 

pubescens Moric. xi, 81. 32 

pucaranus Doer, xiv, 83. 
pucuranus Doer, xiv, 82. 
pudicus Mull, x, 6; xiv, 116. 4 

pudicus Pfr. xiv, 117. 4 

puellaris Bolt, xii, 164. 
puellaris Rve. xi, 66. 30 

pugio Bk. xii, 2. 

pulchella Spix. xii, 135. 61 

pulchellus Brod. xi, 223, 274. 
pulcherrimus Ad. xi, 260. 43 

pulicarius Bk. xi, 7; xiv, 132. 19 
pulicarius Rve. x, 78. 17 

pullata Fer. (Helix) x, 49. 
pumicatus Migh. = Auriculella. 
pumilus Pfr. = Opeas. 
punctatissirnus Less, xiv, 57. 
puncticulatus Pfr. xi, 226; xiv, 158. 

, 42 

punctulifer Sowb. xi, 317. 27 

pupaeformis Cantr. = Azeca. 
pupiforrnis Brod. x, 139. 24 

pupoides Ant. = Omphalotropis. 
pupoides Spix (Clansilia) xiv, 60. 
pupulus Morel. = Ennea. 
purissimus Pils. xiii, 144. 
purpursscens Brug. = Achatina. 
purpuratus Rve. xi, 21. 28 

purus Mss. xiii, 135. 
purus Pils. xi, 229. 42 

pusillus Brong. Hydrobia. 
pusillus (Bulimulus) H. Ad. =? 


pustulosus Brod. x, 153. 25 

pygmseus Brong. = Hydrobia. 
pyramidalis Pfr. viii, 29. 
Pyrgus Alb. x, 135. 
pyriformis Pils. xiv, 72. 
pyrostomus Pfr. xiii, 70. 


quadricolor Pfr. x, 83. ^ 
quadrifasciatus Ang. xi, 243. 
quadrifasciatus Mart, xii, 43 




quadrifasciatus Sch. xi, 259. 
quadras! Hid. xiii, 229. 
quagga Hass. xiii, 234. 
quinquefasciatus Sch. xi, 259. 
quitensis Pfr. x, 158. 
quoyi Cox. xiii, 8. 
h. viii, 30. 


rabuti Jouss. xi, 239. 42 

radiatus Morel, x, 182; xiv, 137. 26 
ragsdalei Pils. xi, 129. 35 

raimondianus Pils. x, 167. 
ramagei E. A. Sm. xiv, 103. 
rambiensis Grt. xiii, 1^8. 56 

ramentosus Coop, xi, 153. 36 

rawsoni Gupp. xii, 20. 46 

rawsonis Bid. xii, 239. 69 

rawsonis H. Ad. xii, 20. 46 

recedens Pfr. xi, 221. 41 

recluzianus Pfr. xii, 55. 47 

recognitus Mab. xi, 137. 35 

reconditus Rve. x, 181; xiv, 137. 26 
rcte Mull, xiii, 168. 
rectilinearis Pfr. xi, 232; xiv, 153. 42 
recMstrigatus Pils. xi, 176. 37 

redditus Rve. xi, 91. 
reentsi Ph. x, 155. l 25 

reentsii Ph. (Helix), x, 129. 23 

reevei Desh. (Odout.)'xiv. 48. 
reevei Pfr. vii, 206. 
reemi Brod. vii, 206. 
reflexilabris Schep. xiii, 206. 
rerlexus Pfr. xi, 9. 27 

regal is Hupe xii, 180. 64 

regina Auct. xii, 181. 64 

regina Bowd. (Helix) xiv, 165. 64 
regiua Fe>. xii, 177. 64 

regina Hupe xii, 179. 64 

reibischi Ball xi, 122. 34 

reinianus (Buliraulus) Kob. Buli 


remotus Hedl. xiii, 76. 55 

requieniPfr. x, 55. 21 

reses Say xii, 109. 61 

resupinata Schum. (Angystotna) 

xiv, 111. 

reticulatus Doer, xiv, 88. 
retusus Oliv. 1801 =Clausilia. 
revinctus Hupe xi, 17. 28 

Rhabdotus Alb. xi, 127. 
Rhabdotus Auct. x, 154. 
Rhaphiellus Pfr. xi, 94. 
rhinocheti Kob. xiii, 52. 54 

RHINUS Alb. xi, 74. 31 

rhizophorarceus Gass. xiii, 80. 

rhizophorarum Gass. xiii, 80. 
rhizophorarus Gass. xiii. 80. 55 
rhodacme Pfr. x, 152. 25 

rhodinostoma Orb. xiv, 51. 
rhodocheilus Rve. x, 8. 4 

rhodolarynx Rve. xi, 171. 37 

RHODONYX Fisch. xii, 239. 69 

rhodospirus P. & M. x, 103. 
rhodostoraa Gray xiii, 14. 51 

rhodostylus Mlldff. xiv, 168. 
rhodotrema Mart, xii, 69. 48 

ribeiroi Tourn. 1879, Mioc. 
ridleyi Sm. xi, 82; xiv, 103. 
riisei Pfr. xi, 41. 29 

rillyensis Boiss (Pupa) = Rillyia. 
rimatus Pfr. xi, 157. 36 

ringens auct. (Anost.) xiv, 111. 
ringens Dkr. xiv, 49. 
ringens Jay. xiv, 64. 
riugens L. (Anost.) xiv, 114. 
ringens Sowb. (Helicodon) xiv, 113. 
RINGICELLA Gray xiv, 114. 

I ringieula Fe>. (Helix) xiv, 115. 
riochanus Doer, xiv, 84. 
riojanus Doer, xiv, 83. 

I rivasii Orb. xi, 51. 32 

1 robustus Fult. xiii, 139. v 
rocss Doer, xiv, 97. 

j rocayanus Orb. xi. 321. 44 

roemeri Pfr. xiii, 192. 
roeseleri Mlldff. xiii, 144. 
romblonensis Pfr. viii, 16. 
rosaceus King x, 33. 5 

rosea Fult. xiii, 233- 
rosea Spix. (Ampullaria) x, 30. 
roseatus Rve. xi, 301; xiv, 161. 45 
roseolabiatus Fult. xiii, 188. 
roseolabrum Sm. x, 73. 17 

roseotincta Mlldff. xiii, 170, 237. 

j roseotinctus Mlldff. xiv, 169. 

I roseus Ads. xiii, 106. 
rossiteri Braz. xiii, 34. 53 

roxsiteri Hartm. xiii, 73. 55 

rouaulti Hupe x, 176. 26 

rubellus Brod. xi, 275. 44 

rubescens Dh. xii, 240. 70 

rubescem Rve. x, 157. 
rubidusZgl. Villa, p. 21. 
rubiginosus Fult. xiii, 224. 
rubra Pfr. xii, 25. 
rubrifasciatus Rve. xi, 38. 
rubrovariegatus Higg. xi, 270. 44 
rudis Ant. xii, 49. 47 

rufescens Ads. xii. 217. 66 

rufescens Gray xii, 9. 
rufocinctus Fult. xiii, 223. 
rufogaster Pfr. vii, 207. 



rufolineatus Dr. xi, 308. 45 

rufopictus Bs. xiv, 5. 

rufovirens Moric. xii, 216. 66 

rufus Gass. xiii, 63. 54 

ruga Hartm. xiii, 119. 56 

rugatus Grt. xiii, 112. 56 

rugifer Bk. xi, 121. 

rugiferus Sowb. xi, 121. 34 

rugosa Val. (Lymuaea) xii, 33. 

rugulosus Sowb. xi, 103. 33 

rupicolus Rve. xi, 6. 

rushii Pils. xi, 70. 31 

rusticellus Morel, x, 170. 25 

rusticus Mouss. vii, 187. 

saccatusPfr. xi, 22^. 
sachsei Alb. xi, 273. 44 

salernensis Math. 1870. 
salleanus Rve. = Stenogyra. 
sallei Pils. xii, 11. 46 

salinicola Doer. xiv. 99. 
salinicola Doer, xiv, 87. 
saloraonia Pfr. (Simp.) xii, 226. 
salomonis Alb. (Simp.) xii, 226. 
salomonis Pfr. xiii, 69. 55 

salted Sowb. x, 52. 21 

sanchristovalensis Cox xiii, 97. 55 
sanctselucise Sm. xi, 86. 32 

santacruzemis Pfr. x, 17. 
sanctcBcrucis Bk. x, 17. 
sanctskmarthae Pils. xiv, 161. 45 
santacruzii Orb. x, 16. 5 

santanensis Pfr. Opeas. 
sanctipanli Iher. & Pils. xiv, 123. 5 
sandysii Prime, 1859. 
sangosB Tscbud. x, 45. 21 

sarcinosus Pfr. vii, 196. 
sarcochilus Pfr. xi, 80. 32 

sarcochrous Pils. xi, 93. 32 

sarcodes Pfr. xi, 56. 30 

sargi C. & F. xii, 65. 48 

saluranus Pfr. xii, 144. 62 

saturnus Pfr. xii, 153. 62 

savesi Or. xiii, 33. 53 

saxtoni Lay. xiii, 65. 54 

sayi Pfr. xiii, 8. 51 

scaber Brug. Melania. 
scabiosus Sowb. x, 142. 24 

scabrellus Anth. xiv. 62. 
scalaricosta Morel, x, 132. 24 

scalariformis Brod. x, 169. 25 

scalariuus Gundl. = Melaniella. 

SCALAKINELLA Doer, xiv, 66. 57 

scalarioides Ph. x, 154. 25 

scarabaeus Brug. == Pythia. 

scarabus Alb. xiii, 65. 54 

schiedeanus Auct. xi, 130. 
schiedeanus Pfr. xi, 131. 35 

schmidti Pfr. xi, 195. 41 

schomburgki Pl'r. xiii, 182. 
scitulus Rve. xi, 271. 44 

scitus H. Ad. xi, 224. 42 

scobinatus Wood xi, 77. 31 

scoliodes Dautz. 41 

scottii Cox. xiii, 90. 55 

sculpturatus Pfr. xi, 120. 34 

SCUTALUS Alb. xi, 12. 28 

scutilis High. 1845. 
scutulatus Brod. x, 165. 25 

scytodes Pfr. x, 84. 18 

sealianus Fbs. 
sectilabris Pfr. xiv, 61. 
seemamii Dim. xiii, 100. 55 

sellers! Cox xiii, 95. 55 

semieinctus Pils. xi, 44. 29 

Semiclaitsaria Pfr. xi, 191. 
semifasciatus Mss. xi, 298. 45 

semifrenatus Mart, xiii, 219. 
semilineata Mke. (Helix) x, 30. 
semimaculatus Pils. x>, 297; xii, 71; 
xiv, 159. 45, 48 

serainiger Mke. = Achatinella. 
semipellucidus Tils, xii, 82. 48 

seraipictus Hid. x, 87. 19 

semistriatus Morel. = Stenogyra. 
semitessellatus Mori, xiii, 194. 
semperi Dhn. x, 94. 19 

seneri Jouss. x, 31. 5 

senilis Gass. xiii, 53. 54 

septemplicata Miihlf. xiv, 58. 
septeuarius Brug. Subulina. 
sepulcralis Poey. xi, 49. 30 

serenus Ph. xi, 285. 44 

seriugi Mich. J. de C., 1862. 
serotinus Morel, xi, 293. 45 

serperastrum Say xii, 37. 47 

serperastrus Say xii, 38. 47 

serratus Pfr. xi, 218. 41 

serresi Math. _= Rillyia. 
servaini Euth. xiii, 30. 53 

sexdentatus Auct. xiv, 60. 
sexdentatus Spix xiv, 59. 
sexfasciatus Schauf. xi, 259. 
sexconus Lam. 1804 - Bythiuia. 
shongii Less, xiii, 22. 53 

shuttleworthi Alb. xii, 201. 65 

siamensis Redf. = Gauesella. 
siculus Brug. ^Liransea. 
signata Spix x, 107. 16 

signifer Pfr. xi, 210. 41 

sileni Beck (Pelek.) x, 66. 
silent Lam. x, 114. 



fimilaris Moric. xi, 233. 
siinilis Brug. = Pupa. 
_simoni Jouss. xiv, 7. 
.swyto Bk. xi, 38. 
simplex Or. xiii, 56. 51 

simplex Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 222. 
simplex Hupe xi, 72. 31 

simplex Jonas viii, 34. 
simpliculus Pfr. x, 176; xiv, 137. 26 
SIMPULOPSIS Bk. xii, 212. 66 

simrothi Reib. xi, 117. 34 

Simula Morel, xii, 219. 67 

Simulopsis Gray xii, 212. 
siuensis Bs. xiii, 190. 
singularis^orei. (Plac.) xiii, 58. 54 
singularis Pfr. (Drap.), xiv, 14. 
sinistrorsa Dh. xiv, 15, 283. 
sinistralis Rve. xiii, 232. 
sinistra Miill, xiii. 147. 
sinistrorsa Cr. xiii, 40. 53 

sinistrorsus Dh. xiv, 15, 283. 

sinistrorsus (Bulimus) Serres, 1838 

= Clausilia. 
sinistrorsus Tate = Pupoides. 

sinuata Alb. x, 116. 
sisalensis Morel, xii, 28. 
smaragdinus Rve. viii, 38. 
sraithii DaC. xi, 247. 
smithii Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 186. 
smith! Kob. (Plac.) xiii, 66. 
snodgrassi Dall. xiv, 150. 
solida Say xii, 168. 
solidulus Brug. = Actaeon. 
solidus Eth. (Plac.), xiii. 27. 
solidus Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 229. 
solidus Pfr. viii, 8. 
solidus Pils. xiii, 9. 
solivagus Rve. viii, 9. 
solutus Trosch. x, 133. 
SONORINA Pils. xi, 155. 
sordidus Dh. xi, 13. 
sordidus King x, 55. 
sordidus Less, x, 163. 
souverbiauus Gass. Op:as. 
souvillei Morel, xiii, 48. 
jowerbeyii Swains, xiv, 31. 
sowerbyi Pfr. xi, 174. 
sowerbiana Fer. (Helix), xiv, 95. 
sowerbyana Bk. xiv, 93. 
speciosus Pfr. x, 70. 
spectatus Rve. xi, 213. 
spectrum Alb. x, 119. 
spectrum Bk. =Obeliscus. 
spenceri Tate xiji, 6. 
spiculatus Morel, x, 144. 
spirifer Gabb. xi, 158. 
SPIXIA Pils. & Van. xiv, 67. 

42 spixii Bk. (Anost.) xiv, 106. 
spixii P. & M. x, 175. 
spixii Rve. x, 59. 
spixii Wagn. (1827) x, 55. 
spixi Orb. (Odont.) xiv, 67. 
spixi Pfr. x, 55. 
splendidus Dh. = Rillyia. 
sporlederi Pfr. xii, 66. 
sporadicus Orb. xi, 67. 
sporadicus Rve. xi, 273. 
spretus Phil, x, 167. 
spretus Rve. viii, 16. 
squamulatus C. & J. x, 34. 
stagnalis Brug. = Limnaea. 
stearnsianus Pils. xiv, 92. 
stearnsii Dall. xiv, 103. 
steerei Pils. xiv, 140. 
stelzneri Dim. x, 180. 
stelzneri Doer, xiv, 67. 
stenacme Pfr. x, 182; xiv, 137. 
stenaeme x, 182. 
steuogyroides Gupp. xi, 49. 
Stenostoma Spix. x, 96; xiv, 36. 
STENOSTYLUS Pils. xi, 313. 
stigmaticus Ph. xi, 281. 
stilbe Pils. xiv, 145. 
stolli Mart, xii, 50. 
stramineus Anct. xii, 12. 
stramineyjs Braz. xiii, 95. 
stramineus Gldg. xii, 13. 





strangei Pfr. xiii, 87. 





strebeli Pils. xii, 128. 

striata Perry (Melania) xiv, 167. 

53 slriata Spix. (Pupa) xiv, 68. 
striatellus Bk. x, 179. 

striatellus C. B. Ad. = Nothus 
51 conferta. 

striatocostatus Orb. =MelanielIa. 

24 stiiatulus Brug. Bucc. striatulum 
36 i Miill. 

striatulus Dall. xi, 143. 35 

striatulus Lam. 1804 = ?Hydro- 

25 biidae. 

striatulus Sowb. x, 162. 25 

54 striatus Brug. = Achatinidse. 
striatus King x, 179. 26 

36 strictus Poey = Stenogyra. 

strigata Mlldff. xiii, 133. 

strigatus Pils. xiii, 46. 54 

17 strigatus Rve. xi, 231. 
41 { strigatus Sowb. xi, 228; xiv, 158. 42 
16 strigosus Mart, xiii, 152. 

strobeli Doer, xiv, 99. 
51 slruthiolaris Mke. x, 103. 
24 stubeli Mart, x, 42. 6 

36 studeri Pfr. xi, 246. 43 

57 I stutchburyi Pfr. xiii, 88. 55 



styliger Bk. x, 156. 25 

stylus Bk. Ind. p. 62. 
subantiquatus Bk. xii, 2. 
subcactorum Pils. x, 145. 24 

subcarinatus Pfr. viii, 19. 
subconcolor Mart, xiii, 212. 
subconoidalis Anc. xi, 109. 
subcylindricus Math. 1842 = Rilly ia. 
subeffusus Kob. (Plac.) xiii, 39. 53 
subeffusus Ph. xi, 217. 41 

subfasciatus Ckll. xii, 3. 
subfasciatus Pfr. xi, 32. 28 

subfloccosus Pils. xii, 90. 48 

subglandiformis Mss. x, 80; xiv. 

127. 17 

subglobosus Lea vii, 204. 
subinterruDtus Pfr. xi, 244. 43 

subirroratus DaC. xiv, 163. 62 

subjussieui Pils. xi, 26. 28 

sublabeo Anc. xii, 203. 65 

subltevis Pils. x, 111. 16 

submariei Sowb. xiii, 55. 54 

subpellucidus Sm. xi, 288. 44 

sulphureus Pfr. xii, 76; xiv, 162. 48 
subplicata Pfr. x, 199; xiv, 130. 18 
subprotractus Pils. xiv, 155. 42 
subpulohella Pils. xii, 141. 61 

subroseus Ph. xi, 284. 44 

subserniclausus Pet. xi, 238. 42 ! 
' subsenilis Gass. xiii, 53. 54 j 

subsexdentatus Doer, xiv, 85. 
subsirailaris Pils. xi, 222. 41 ; 

subsordida Pils. (Helix) x, 163. 
subspirifer Mab. xi, 162. 36 | 

subsuctatus Mss. xiv, 173. 
subtenuis Pils. xi, 76. 31 | 

subtropicalis Doer, xi, 67 
subtuszoiiata Pils. xii, 95. 49 

subula C. B. Ad. = Euspiraxis pro- 


sub^ulai Pfr. = Opeas. 
subulatus Or. siii, 63. 54 

subun)color Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 


subunicolor Mart, xii, 59. - 47 
subventricosus DaC. xiv, 156. 41 
succinctus Rve. viii. 17. 
succinea Pils. xiv, 160. 45 

succineoides Mart, x, 84. 
succineus Brug. = Succinea. 
succinoides Pet. x, 84; xiv, 128. 18 
sufflatus Old. xi, 136. 35 

suffusus Rve. = L>micolaria. 
sulcatus Reib. xi, 101. 
sulcosus Pfr. xii, 48. 47 

sulculosa Fer. xii, 214. 66 

sulfur atus Mart, xiii, 143. 

sulfureus Mart, xii, 77. 48 

sulphuratus H. & J. xiii, 143. 
sultaiia Dillw. xii, 188. 65 

Sultana iShutt. xii, 18<>. 
sultanus Lam. xiii, 154. 
sumatranus Mts. xiii, 218, 228. 
sumbaensis Fult. xiii, 208. 
superbus Fult. (Amphi.) xiii, 223. 
superbus Jonas x, 43. 
superfasciatus Gass. xiii, 40. 53 
superstriatus Sowb. x, 91. 19 

surgillatus Pfr. xiv, 53. 
suspect us Mart, xiii, 213. 
swainsoni PJr. x, 103. 15 

swiftianus Pfr. = Stenogyra. 
swinhoeana Pils. xiv, 19. 
swinhoei Pfr. xiv, 19. 
sylheticus Rve. xiii, 189. 
sylvanus Brod. viii, 48. 
sylvaticus Wagn. Neobeliscus. 
SYNDROMUS Pils. xiii, 184. 
sytodes Ads. x, 199. 

taniatus Ph. xi, 291. 
taeniolus Nyst. x, 57. 21 

tauneri Dall. xi, 113; xiv. 152. 34 
tanouensis Or. xiii, 66. 54 

tapadoides Ph. xi, 317. 49 

taquinensis.Pfr. x, 81. 17 

tarmensis Ph. x, 60. 21 

tasmanicm Pfr. xiii, 18. 51 

tateanus Gupp. xi, 80. 
Tatutor Jouss. x, 43. 
tatutor Jouss. x, 47. 21 

tauuaisii Fer. x. 48. 21 

taunaysii Orb. x, 49. 
taylorianus Rve. x, 90; xiv, 132. 19 
taylorioides Mill, x, 90. 
tchioensis Kob. xiii, 38. 53 

TEMESA Ads. x, 134. 
tenellus Bk. Ind. p. 63. 
tenellum Dall, Pact, xiii, 234. 
tener Mts. xiii, 136. 
tenuicostatus Matherou. 
tenuilabris Pfr. xi, 310. 45 

tenuiplicatus Pfr. -= Macroceramus. 
tenuis Ant. xiv, 172. 
tennis Dkr. xi, 65. 
tenuissimus Orb. xi, 64, 320. 30 
tenuissimus Sm. xi, 49. 
tenuistriatus Sowb. 1846 = Rillyia. 
tepecensis Mart, xii, 84. 48 

terebella C. B. Ad. = Opeas. 
terebellatus Lam. = Niso. 
terebellum Brug. = Pyramidella. 




wagneri Grat. viii, 53. 
wayneri Pfr. xiv, 08, 70. 
walli Cox = Opeas. 
wallisianus Mss. xii, 158. 
weddelli Hupe xi, 21. 
weyembergliii Doer. xiv. 101. 
weyenberffhi Doer, xiv, 100. 
willianisi Pfr. x, 146. 
williDobrn xiv, 44. 
vdlsoni Pils. x, 39. 
winberi Nev. xiii, 137. 
winteri Pfr. xiii, 137. 
wolfi Reib. xi, 115. 
woodiaims Lea. vii, 206. 
woodianm Pfr. vii, 210. 
woodwardi Pfr. x, 151. 
urzesniowskii Lub. xii, 198. 


xantholeucus Mart, xii, 44. 
XANTHONYX F. & C. xii, 232. 
xanthostoma Orb. xi, 196. 
xanthostomus Wiegtn. xi, 131. 
xantusi W. G. B. xi, 148. 
XENOTHAUMA Fult. xiv, 134. 
xiengeusis Mori, xiii, 194; xiv, 





xiengsensis Fiscli. xiv, 169. 

yanamensis Morel, x, 54. 
yatesi Pfr. xiii, 202. 
yungasensis Orb. xi, 203. 
yporangauus Iher. xiv, 120. 

ZAPLAGIUS Pils. xi, 185. 
zebra Auct. xii, 106, 108, 110, 
zebra Cous. x, 54. 
zebra Hass. xiii, 201. 
zebra Mull, xii, 104. 
zebra Perry Acbatina. 
zebra Shuttl. xii, 101. 
zebra Spix. xii, 95. 







zebrinus Pfr. xiii, 199. 

zeledoni Dall. xii, 32. 

zhorquinsis Ang. xii, 31. 
47 ziczac DaC. xi, 212. 

! ziebmanni Rve. xii, 38. 
41 ziegleri Pfr. xii. 39. 

ziegleri Rve. xii, 76. 
36 zigzag Lam. xii, 136. 
22 zonifera Streb. xii, 123. 
169. I zoograpbicus Orb. xi, 197. 





IN I'l \ To P.M. Mil I .Hi I , I I . 


ten -brails r.nm. Melanin, 
tc'n-bralis 1MV. x, 142. 24, 71 

trrrbra Mat heron, ISM'J. 
tcivbrastrr Lam. Stenogyra. 
terrs Meek. A I lay. I. ISfili. 
ti-rrs Oliv. 1S01 riausilia. 
tt'rri'ntrin Spi\. I 

tessellatns Sh. xi, 167. 37 

IHensii l>kr. \, 77. 17 

tt'\ sinamii Mss. xiii, K'l. 

I liaiuinianus Mts. x, 14. 4 
thitinnoifiix Am-t. xi, 18, 24. 
thamnoii-us Oil), xi, 11); xiv, 142. 28 
THAI' MA STUB Alb. 19 
ThitniiHtxtux Anct. xi, 127. 
l!n<>lxil(ti<in>iH Hs. xiii, 180. 

({ass. xiv, 18. 
i Nev. xiii, 180. ' 

Cr. xiii, US. 53 

t liompsoiii I' IV. x, . r >:'>. 21 

tltort i/i Hk. xi, 65. 
tigrloa Les. xii, 287. 69 

tigrinns I)a.C. xi, 'j:il. 42 

tit;ns H rod. xi. 275. 44 

tobagoentit IMis. x, ;;<>; xiv. 128. 
toruatilis Brug. = Actteon. 
tonu'm-ni Morio. (Helix) 3d T, IOC), 108. 
tomigeroidcs Moi u-. \i\, 108. 

Spi\. xiv, 105. 57 

Monti, xiv, 109. 
Tomogeriiui ,Jouss. xiv, 114. 
torallyi Orb. xi, 278. 44 

torticollis Oliv. Clausilia. 
tortoramis Doer, x, 182. 
torlinjiinim Dall. xi, 117. 
tomlosiis linijr. Melaniida-. 
totonacus Shd). xii, 71. 48 

translucens liroil. xii, 89. 48 

iraiispart'iis llvo. xi, 715. 31 

tribalteatus live, xi, 246. 43 

I 1 idiocies Orb. xi, 92; xiv, 148. 32 
tiicincta Mart, xii, 120. 61 
tricingulatus Ant. xii, 88. 48 
tricolor I'd. x, 87; xiv, 181. 19 
tricolor Soliauf. \i, 259. 
trifasciatus Drug. (Ampbl.) xiv, 4. 
hifaseiatiiH Giuel. xiv, 3. 
triftim-ititun Li-h. xi, 38. 

t.ilVacta Tils, xii, 115. 61 

trinonostoiniiK Jonas xi, 256. 43 

trttineata (I & G. xiii, 8. 51 

1 1 imai ianiis Mart, xii, 62. 47 
(fin ilarius Sm. xii, 19. 

tripictiiH Alb. xii, 69. 48 

trislis Jay xi, 301 Lanistes pur- 

tristia 1'1'r. xi, 301. 

tiivittaius Mss. \i. 'J45. 43 
tri/.onalis Frr. xiv, 4. 

tropicalis Moid. \ii, 85. 48 

t.osrh.-ii PI., xi, :;M. 49 

tiullisatus Sh. .xii, 1JM. 65 

truncatiiH Brug., Knc. Mcth., p. 

310 Limucea triincatula Mull, 
truncatiis (liuliinus) P1V. - Eucalo- 

dium iiiaitcnsi St rebel xv, 19. 
trujilleiisis IMi. xi, 272. 44 

tryoni 0. & F. xii, 75. 48 

tryoni Pils. (Simp.) xii, 218. 66 
t.ryoni IMls. (An)pbi.) xiii, 196. 
tscl.udit TroHch. x, 146. 24 

tserni Lub. x, 198. 
tiibulatus Morel, x, 182. 24 

tudiculatuH Mart, xiv, 65, 170. 
tumida Gmel. (Helix) xi, 76. 
tumidulim Pfr. x, 168. 25 

tumulorum Doer, xiv, 81. 
tupaoii Orb. xi, 19; xiv, 142. 28 
turbinatiiH Lam. = Rissoidee. 
tiubinatuB Lea = Limicolaria. 
turbinatus IM'r. (Tomig.) xiv, 107. 
turgidula Oas. xiv, 16. 71 

turgiduluB Desh. 1864 = Assinui-ca, 
turiridulus Sandb. 1870-75 = Pet- 

turgidus (Bulimus) Pse. 1864 = 

? Partula. 

turner! Pfr. xiii, 75. 55 

turrioula Brug. = Paryphostoma. 
turricula Pfr. Macroceramus. 
turrita Ant. (Pupa) xiv, 68. 
turrita Kob. (Plac.) xiii, 41, 46. 54 
turritella Orb. x, 193. 
turritellatusBk. x, 183; xiv, 139. 26 
turritus Brod. x, 135. 24 

turritus Grat. 1845 = Hydrobiid. 
turnix Gld. xiv, 133. 8 


uber Mke. xiv, 173. 
uber Pfr. viii, 41. 

ucayalensis Or. xi, <,:;. 30 

uhdeana Mart, xii, 129. 61 

uhdeanus Mart, xii, 83. 48 

uligi:u>8U8 Ileimb. xiii, 91. 55 

ulloaB Ph. x, 167. 25 

umbilicaris Soul, x, 130. 24 
umbilicatellus PiU. x, 181. 

umbllicatus Kob. xiii, 236. 54 

umbilicatus Mill, x, 172. 26 
umbraticus live, xi, 52; xiv, 144. 30 

undata Brug. xii, 105. 61 

undulata Gldg. xii, 106. 61 



undulalum'Lcli. (Carychium), x, 05. 
undulatus Bk. x, 114. 
undulatus Gldg. xii, 22. 46 

undulosus Mart, xii, 36. 47 

uniangulata F6r. xi, 191. 
unicarinatus Lam. = Maeroceramus. 
unicolor Pfr. xi, 167. 37 

unicolor Phil, x, 59. 
unicolor Sowb. xi, 53. 30 

unidentatus Sowb. (Partula) x, 9. 4 
unifasciatus Sowb. xi, 116. 34 

uranops Pils. xi, 188. 39 

urceus Brug. = Ampullariu. 
urinarius Poey xi, 50. 
uruguayensis Pils. xi, 69. 
ustulatus Jay viii, 52. 
ustulatus Mke. = Achatinidse. 
ustulatus Sowb. xi, 104. 33 

uva Brug. = Cerion. 


vadum Pils. xi, 165. 37 

valeDciennesii Pfr. x, 21. 5 

vauattai Pils. xi, 223. 42 

vaporeus Mss. xiv, 173. 
variabilis Hartm. = Cocblicella. 
varia Mart, xii, 144. 61 

varians Brod. xi, 274. 44 

varians Ktist. xi, 16. 
varians Mlldff. xiii, 1P3. 
varicosus Pfr. xii, 61. 47 

variegata Pfr. (Succinea) xi, 6. 27 
variegata Raf. xii, 168. 
variegata Silv. x, 103. 
variegatus Brug. = Actason. 
variegatus Pfr. xi, 5. 27 

vegetus Gld. xi, 143. 
velatus Brod. viii, 12. 
velutinohispidus Moric. xi, 76. 31 
venetiolensis x, 42. 
venezuelensis Mts. xi, 312. 45 

venezuelensis Nyst x, 41. 6 

venezuelensis Pfr. (Tomig.) xiv, 109. 
venosa Humpb. xii, 243. 
ventanensis Pils. x, 189. 26 

ventricosa Kob. xiii, 45. 54 

ventricosus Brug. viii, 10. 
ventricosus Para, xi, 279. 
ventrosulus Mlldff. xiii, 186. 
veutrosus Reib. xi, 119. 33 

venustus Bk. xii, 2. 
venustus Reib. xi, 105. 
veranyi Pfr. x, 83. 18 

verecundus Rve. viii, 35. 
vermetus Antb. xiv, 173. 
vermieulatus Beck xiv, 55. 
vermieulatus Dall xi, 112. 

vermieulatus Mke. xiv, 55. 

vermiculus Meek & Hayden. 
! verreauxianum IJupe (Anostoma) 
xiv, 113. 

verrucosus Pfr. xi, 102. 33 

versicolor Brod. xi. 16; xiv, 140. 28 

versicolor C. & J. xiv, 172. 
1 versicolor Fult. xiii, 229. 
I veruculum Morel, x, 137. 24 

1 veseyianus Dall xi, 160. 36 

vesicalis Gld. xi, 136. 

vesicalis Pfr. xi, 69. 31 

vespertinus Pfr. xi, 269. 44 

vesperus Jouss. = AcbatinidaB. 

vestalis Alb. xi, 290. 45 

vexillum Brod. xii, 87. 48 

vexillum Brug. xii, 167. 

vexillum DeK. xii, 164. 63 

vexillum Wood xi, 274; xiv, 159. 44 

vicarius Fnlt. xii, 200. 65 

vicarius Fult. (Ampbi.) xiii, 191. 

victor Pfr. x, 82. 18 

viequensis Pfr. =Pineria. 

vimineus Mor. xii, 95. 49 

vincentina Sm. xiu 219. 66 

vincentinns Pfr. xii, 17. 46 

violaceus Mss. xi, 207. 41 

virescens Mart, xiii, 217. 

virescens Sw. xiii, 171. 

virgatus Jay. viii, 48. 

mrgatus Spix. xiv. 37. 

mrginalis Morel, x, 157. 

virginalis Pfr. xi, 309. 45 

virgineus Brug. x, 7. 

virgincus L. xii, 162; xiv, 165. 63 

virgineus Lea viii, 36. 

Virginia Blv. xii, 163. 63 

virgo Lea xi, 305. 45 

virgulata Fer. xii, 24. 

virgulatus Binn. xii, 28. 

virgultorurn Morel, x, 168; xi, 294. 


viriatus Morel, x, 54. 21 

viridescens Mab. xiii, 179. 

viridis Mlldff. xiii. 183. 

viridostriatus Lea vii, 178. 

visendus Hid. xi, 267. 44 

vitiensis Grt. xiii, 110. 56 

vitreu* Spix. xiv, 60. 

vitrinoides Rve. xii, 222. 

vittata Humb. xi, 292. 

vittata Sw. xii, 166. 

vittatus Brod. x, 156. 

vittatus Spix. xii, 91. 49 

voithianus Pfr. xi, 322. 25 

vugatus Pfr. Cless. xiii, 111. 

vulgaris Moric. x, 103. 




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